NewLink Genetics Corporation
NEWLINK GENETICS CORP (Form: 10-Q, Received: 11/10/2014 16:24:19)
Table of Contents

 
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-Q

ý Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.
For the quarterly period ended September 30, 2014.
o  
Transition report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.
For the transition period from                       to                     .
Commission File Number
001-35342


NEWLINK GENETICS CORPORATION
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in Its Charter)


Delaware
 
42-1491350
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
 
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
2503 South Loop Drive
Ames, Iowa 50010
(515) 296-5555
(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of principal executive offices)



Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.   Yes  ý     No  o


Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). Yes  ý     No  o


Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
Large accelerated filer  o
 
Accelerated filer  x
 
 
 
Non-accelerated filer  o
 
Smaller reporting company  o
(Do not check if a smaller reporting company)
 
 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).  Yes  o     No  ý


As of November 6, 2014 , there were 27,959,553 shares of the registrant’s Common Stock, par value $0.01 per share, outstanding.



Table of Contents



NewLink Genetics Corporation
FORM 10-Q
Table of Contents
 
 
Page
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 



2

Table of Contents

PART I


NewLink Genetics Corporation
and Subsidiaries 
Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets
(unaudited)
(In thousands, except share and per share data)
 
 
September 30, 2014
 
December 31, 2013
 
Assets
 
 
 
 
 
Current assets:
 
 
 
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents
 
$
51,070

 
$
61,291

 
Certificates of deposit
 
16,636

 
249

 
Prepaid expenses
 
353

 
773

 
Income tax receivable
 
7,502

 

 
State research and development credit receivable
 
479

 
329

 
Other receivables
 
2,720

 
1,328

 
Total current assets
 
78,760

 
63,970

 
Leasehold improvements and equipment:
 
 
 
 
 
Leasehold improvements
 
5,581

 
5,588

 
Computer equipment
 
1,311

 
1,133

 
Lab equipment
 
4,897

 
3,724

 
Total leasehold improvements and equipment
 
11,789

 
10,445

 
Less accumulated depreciation and amortization
 
(4,672
)
 
(3,858
)
 
Leasehold improvements and equipment, net
 
7,117

 
6,587

 
Total assets
 
$
85,877

 
$
70,557

 
See accompanying notes to condensed consolidated financial statements.
 

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Table of Contents

NewLink Genetics Corporation
and Subsidiaries 
Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets
(unaudited)
(In thousands, except share and per share data)
 
 
September 30, 2014
 
December 31, 2013
 
Liabilities and Stockholders' Equity
 
 

 
 

 
Current liabilities:
 
 

 
 

 
Accounts payable
 
$
2,935

 
$
612

 
Accrued expenses
 
4,026

 
2,861

 
Income taxes payable
 

 
130

 
Current portion of deferred rent
 
84

 
84

 
Current portion of long term debt and obligations under capital leases
 
193

 
189

 
Total current liabilities
 
7,238

 
3,876

 
Long-term liabilities:
 
 

 
 

 
Royalty obligation payable to Iowa Economic Development Authority
 
6,000

 
6,000

 
Notes payable and obligations under capital leases
 
989

 
1,033

 
Deferred rent, excluding current portion
 
1,259

 
1,321

 
Total long-term liabilities
 
8,248

 
8,354

 
Total liabilities
 
15,486

 
12,230

 
Commitments and contingencies
 
 
 
 
 
Stockholders' Equity:
 
 
 
 
 
Blank check preferred stock, $0.01 par value: Authorized shares — 5,000,000 at September 30, 2014 and December 31, 2013; issued and outstanding shares — 0 at September 30, 2014 and December 31, 2013
 

 

 
Common stock, $0.01 par value: Authorized shares — 75,000,000 at September 30, 2014 and December 31, 2013; issued shares — 27,940,267 and outstanding shares — 27,929,874 at September 30, 2014, and issued and outstanding shares — 26,573,023 at December 31, 2013
 
279

 
266

 
Additional paid-in capital
 
230,308

 
194,038

 
Treasury stock, at cost: 10,393 shares at September 30, 2014
 
(222
)
 

 
Retained deficit
 
(159,974
)
 
(135,977
)
 
Total stockholders' equity
 
70,391

 
58,327

 
Total liabilities and stockholders' equity
 
$
85,877

 
$
70,557

 
See accompanying notes to condensed consolidated financial statements.
 



4

Table of Contents

NewLink Genetics Corporation
and Subsidiaries
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations
(unaudited)
(In thousands, except share and per share data)
 
 
Three Months Ended
September 30,
 
Nine Months Ended
September 30,
 
 
 
 
2014
 
2013
 
2014
 
2013
 
 
Grant revenue
 
$
2,801

 
$
265

 
$
3,347

 
$
799

 
 
Operating expenses:
 
 

 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
Research and development
 
10,896

 
6,125

 
23,760

 
17,505

 
 
General and administrative
 
4,931

 
2,257

 
11,044

 
6,522

 
 
Total operating expenses
 
15,827

 
8,382

 
34,804

 
24,027

 
 
Loss from operations
 
(13,026
)
 
(8,117
)
 
(31,457
)
 
(23,228
)
 
 
Other income and expense:
 
 

 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
Miscellaneous income
 

 

 

 
114

 
 
Interest income
 
20

 
2

 
65

 
6

 
 
Interest expense
 
(5
)
 
(8
)
 
(18
)
 
(26
)
 
 
      Other income (expense), net
 
15

 
(6
)
 
47

 
94

 
 
Net loss before taxes
 
(13,011
)
 
(8,123
)
 
(31,410
)
 
(23,134
)
 
 
Income tax benefit
 
7,413

 

 
7,413

 

 
 
Net loss
 
$
(5,598
)
 
$
(8,123
)
 
$
(23,997
)
 
$
(23,134
)
 
 
Net loss per common share, basic and diluted
 
$
(0.20
)
 
$
(0.32
)
 
$
(0.86
)
 
$
(0.92
)
 
 
Weighted-average common shares outstanding, basic and diluted
 
27,914,782

 
25,702,043

 
27,800,246

 
25,067,772

 
 
See accompanying notes to condensed consolidated financial statements.







5

Table of Contents


NewLink Genetics Corporation
and Subsidiaries
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Stockholders' Equity
(unaudited)
(In thousands, except share data)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Number of
Common
Shares
Outstanding
 
Common
Stock
 
Additional
Paid-in
Capital
 
Treasury Stock
 
Retained Deficit
Total
Stockholders' Equity
Balance at December 31, 2013
 
26,573,023

 
$
266

 
$
194,038

 
$

 
$
(135,977
)
 
$
58,327

Share-based compensation
 

 

 
6,901

 

 

 
6,901

Exercise of stock options
 
337,217

 
3

 
1,587

 

 

 
1,590

Sale of shares under stock purchase plan
 
12,810

 

 
233

 

 

 
233

Issuance of common stock under the ATM Offering (net of offering costs of $692, January and February 2014)
 
1,017,217

 
10

 
27,549

 

 

 
27,559

Shares withheld for statutory tax withholding (September 30, 2014)
 
(10,393
)
 

 

 
(222
)
 

 
(222
)
Net loss
 

 

 

 

 
(23,997
)
 
(23,997
)
Balance at September 30, 2014
 
27,929,874

 
$
279

 
$
230,308

 
$
(222
)
 
$
(159,974
)
 
$
70,391


See accompanying notes to condensed consolidated financial statements.



6

Table of Contents

NewLink Genetics Corporation
and Subsidiaries
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows
(unaudited)
(In thousands)
 
 
Nine Months Ended
September 30,
 
 
 
 
2014
 
2013
 
 
Cash Flows From Operating Activities
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net loss
 
$
(23,997
)
 
$
(23,134
)
 
 
Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash used in operating activities:
 
 
 
 
 
 
Share-based compensation
 
6,901

 
3,134

 
 
Depreciation and amortization
 
814

 
635

 
 
Changes in operating assets and liabilities:
 
 

 
 

 
 
Prepaid expenses
 
420

 
502

 
 
Income tax receivable
 
(7,502
)
 

 
 
 State research and development credit receivable
 
(150
)
 
(15
)
 
 
Other receivables
 
(1,392
)
 
(1,027
)
 
 
Accounts payable
 
2,324

 
2

 
 
Income taxes payable
 
(130
)
 

 
 
Accrued expenses and deferred rent
 
1,103

 
2,147

 
 
Net cash used in operating activities
 
(21,609
)
 
(17,756
)
 
 
Cash Flows From Investing Activities
 
 
 
 
 
 
Purchase of certificates of deposit
 
(16,387
)
 

 
 
Maturity of certificates of deposit
 

 
1,494

 
 
Purchase of equipment
 
(1,344
)
 
(1,280
)
 
 
Net cash (used in) provided by investing activities
 
(17,731
)
 
214

 
 
Cash Flows From Financing Activities
 
 
 
 
 
 
Issuance of common stock, net of offering costs
 
29,382

 
49,423

 
 
Repurchase of common stock
 
(222
)
 

 
 
Proceeds from notes payable
 
97

 

 
 
Principal payments on notes payable
 
(115
)
 
(111
)
 
 
Payments under capital lease obligations
 
(23
)
 
(56
)
 
 
Net cash provided by financing activities
 
29,119

 
49,256

 
 
Net increase (decrease) in cash and cash equivalents
 
(10,221
)
 
31,714

 
 
Cash and cash equivalents at beginning of period
 
61,291

 
20,250

 
 
Cash and cash equivalents at end of period
 
$
51,070

 
$
51,964

 
 
Supplemental disclosure of cash flows information:
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cash paid for interest
 
$
18

 
$
25

 
 
Cash paid for taxes
 
143

 

 
 
Noncash financing and investing activities:
 
 
 
 
 
 
Purchased leasehold improvements and equipment in accounts payable
 

 
145

 
 
Assets acquired under capital lease
 

 
54

 
 
See accompanying notes to condensed consolidated financial statements.

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Table of Contents
NewLink Genetics Corporation and Subsidiaries
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
(unaudited)



1.     D escription of Business
On June 4, 1999, NewLink Genetics Corporation (NewLink) was incorporated as a Delaware corporation. NewLink was formed for the purpose of developing treatments for cancer and other diseases. NewLink initiated operations in April of 2000, which primarily consist of research and development.
In 2005, NewLink created a wholly-owned subsidiary, BioProtection Systems Corporation (BPS). NewLink contributed certain licensing agreements and other intangible assets for BPS to create vaccines against potential biological terror threats. Subsequent to its creation, certain interests in BPS were sold to minority stockholders. On January 7, 2011, NewLink acquired all of the minority interest in BPS, by merging a newly-formed subsidiary of NewLink with BPS, with BPS as the surviving corporation resulting in NewLink owning all the outstanding capital stock of BPS.
In 2013, NewLink created a wholly-owned subsidiary, NewLink International (NI). In 2014, NewLink created another wholly-owned subsidiary, NewLink Global (NG). NewLink plans to conduct all or a portion of its operations outside of the United States through NI and NG.
NewLink and its subsidiaries (the Company) are devoting substantially all of their efforts toward research and development. The Company has never earned revenue from sales of its drugs. The Company incurred a net loss of $5.6 million and $24.0 million for the three and nine months ending September 30, 2014 . The Company has managed its liquidity needs to date through a series of capital market transactions. On February 4, 2013, the Company completed an offering of its common stock. The Company sold 4,600,000 shares of common stock at a price of $11.40 per share raising a total of $49.0 million in net proceeds.
NewLink entered into a sales agreement with Cantor Fitzgerald & Co., dated as of September 5, 2013, under which NewLink may sell up to $60.0 million in shares of its common stock in one or more placements at prevailing market prices for its common stock (the ATM Offering). Any such sales would be effected pursuant to its registration statement on Form S-3 (333-185721), declared effective by the SEC on January 4, 2013. As of March 31, 2014 the Company had sold 1,833,838 shares of common stock under the ATM Offering, raising a total of $45.0 million in net proceeds. During the years ended December 31, 2013 and 2012, the Company received equity financing of $67.2 million and $1.3 million , respectively, through common stock offerings. Subsequent to March 31, 2014 and through the date of this filing, the Company sold no additional shares of common stock under the ATM Offering.
The accompanying financial statements as of September 30, 2014 and for the three and nine months then ended have been prepared assuming the Company will continue as a going concern. The Company successfully raised net proceeds of $37.6 million from its initial public offering in 2011, completed a follow-on offering of its common stock raising net proceeds of $49.0 million , and raised an additional $45.0 million in net proceeds from the ATM Offering prior to September 30, 2014 . The Company's cash and cash equivalents and current certificates of deposit after these offerings are expected to be adequate to satisfy the Company's liquidity requirements well into 2015, although not through commercialization and launch of revenue producing products. If available liquidity becomes insufficient to meet the Company’s operating obligations as they come due, the Company's plans include pursuing alternative funding arrangements and/or reducing expenditures as necessary to meet the Company’s cash requirements. However, there is no assurance that, if required, the Company will be able to raise additional capital or reduce discretionary spending to provide the required liquidity. Failure by the Company to successfully execute its plans or otherwise address its liquidity needs may have a material adverse effect on its business and financial position, and may materially affect the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern.


2.
Basis of Presentation
The interim financial statements have been prepared and presented by the Company in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (U.S. GAAP) and the rules and regulations of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), without audit, and, in management’s opinion, reflect all adjustments necessary to present fairly the Company’s interim financial information.
Certain information and footnote disclosures normally included in the Company’s annual financial statements prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP have been condensed or omitted. The accompanying unaudited condensed financial statements should be read in conjunction with the audited financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2013 , included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K. There were no significant changes in the Company’s accounting policies since the

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Table of Contents
NewLink Genetics Corporation and Subsidiaries
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
(unaudited)

end of fiscal 2013 , with the exception of those discussed below. The financial results for any interim period are not necessarily indicative of financial results for the full year.


3.     Significant Accounting Policies
(a) Use of Estimates
The preparation of consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the consolidated financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
(b) Principles of Consolidation
The consolidated financial statements include the financial statements of NewLink and its wholly-owned subsidiaries. All significant intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
(c) Financial Instruments and Concentrations of Credit Risk
The fair values of cash and cash equivalents, certificates of deposit, receivables, and accounts payable, which are recorded at cost, approximate fair value based on the short-term nature of these financial instruments. The fair value and carrying value of notes payable and capital lease obligations was $1.2 million and $1.2 million as of September 30, 2014 and December 31, 2013 , respectively, and was determined using Level 3 inputs. The Company is unable to estimate the fair value of the royalty obligation because the timing and receipt of payments is uncertain. Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to concentrations of credit risk consist primarily of cash and cash equivalents and certificates of deposit. Cash and cash equivalents are held by financial institutions and are federally insured up to certain limits. At times, the Company’s cash and cash equivalents balance exceeds the federally insured limits. To limit the credit risk, the Company invests its excess cash primarily in high quality cash equivalents, such as money market funds, or certificates of deposit.
(d) Recent Accounting Pronouncements
On May 28, 2014, the FASB issued ASU No. 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, which requires an entity to recognize the amount of revenue to which it expects to be entitled for the transfer of promised goods or services to customers. The ASU will replace most existing revenue recognition guidance in U.S. GAAP when it becomes effective. The new standard is effective for the Company on January 1, 2017. Early application is not permitted. The standard permits the use of either the retrospective or cumulative effect transition method. The Company is evaluating the effect that ASU 2014-09 will have on its consolidated financial statements and related disclosures. The Company has not yet selected a transition method nor has it determined the effect of the standard on its ongoing financial reporting.
In June 2014, the FASB issued ASU No. 2014-10, Development Stage Entities (Topic 915): Elimination of Certain Financial Reporting Requirements. The ASU eliminates the distinction of a development stage entity and certain related disclosure requirements, including the elimination of inception-to-date information on the statements of operations, cash flows and stockholders' equity. The amendments in the ASU will be effective prospectively for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2014, and interim periods within those annual periods, however early adoption is permitted. The Company early adopted this standard effective June 30, 2014. Adoption of this standard did not have a material impact on the Company's condensed consolidated financial statements.


4.     Long-Term Debt
March 2010 City of Ames Forgivable Loan
In March 2010, the Company entered into a $400,000 forgivable loan agreement with the City of Ames, Iowa and the Ames Chamber of Commerce, jointly, as lenders. The project provides the Company with financial assistance to construct new facilities within the Ames city limits. In the absence of a default, there are no principal or interest payments due until the expected completion date for the project, which is March 10, 2015.

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Table of Contents
NewLink Genetics Corporation and Subsidiaries
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
(unaudited)

The project calls for the Company to create or retain at least 150 full-time positions located in Ames, Iowa as of March 10, 2015. The agreement also calls for the Company to enter into a five -year building lease with the option for extension for an additional five years of not less than 20,000 square feet within the corporate limits of the City of Ames by March 10, 2015. If, as of March 10, 2015, the Company has fulfilled the terms of the loan agreement, the loan will be forgiven. If on March 10, 2015, the Company has failed to create or retain at least 150 full-time jobs in Ames, Iowa, the Company will be required to repay approximately $3,100 per job not created or retained following such date. As of September 30, 2014, $397,000 of the total $400,000 forgivable loan was advanced to the Company. In the event of default, including failure to repay any amounts under the loan when due, the Company will be required to repay the note, including 6.5% interest per annum, beginning at the date of default.


5.   Common Stock Equity Incentive Plan
In April 2000, the stockholders approved the Company's 2000 Equity Incentive Plan (the “2000 Plan”), and in July 2009, the stockholders approved the Company's 2009 Equity Incentive Plan (the “2009 Plan”). Following the approval of the 2009 Plan, all options outstanding under the 2000 Plan are effectively included under the 2009 Plan. Under the provisions of the 2009 Plan, the Company may grant the following types of common stock awards:
Incentive Stock Options
Nonstatutory Stock Options
Restricted Stock Awards
Stock Appreciation Rights
Awards under the 2009 Plan, as amended, may be made to officers, employees, members of the Board of Directors, advisors, and consultants to the Company. Shares are added to the reserve of shares available for issuance pursuant to an “evergreen provision” on January 1 of each year, from 2012 to (and including) 2019, in an amount equal to 4% of the total number of shares of common stock outstanding on December 31 of the preceding calendar year. As of September 30, 2014 , there were 6,799,854 shares of common stock authorized for the 2009 plan and 1,056,883 shares remained available for issuance.
On January 1, 2013 , an additional 838,375 shares of common stock were added to the shares reserved for future issuance under the 2009 Plan. On January 1, 2014 an additional 1,066,340 shares of common stock were added to the shares reserved for future issuance under the 2009 Plan.
Under the terms of the Company’s 2010 Non-Employee Directors’ Stock Award Plan (Directors’ Plan), which became effective on November 10, 2011, 238,095 shares of common stock were reserved for future issuance. On May 9, 2013 , an additional 161,905 shares of common stock were added to the shares reserved for future issuance under the Directors' Plan. As of September 30, 2014 , 207,327 shares remained available for issuance under the plan.
Under the terms of the Company’s 2010 Employee Stock Purchase Plan (2010 Purchase Plan), which became effective on November 10, 2011, 214,285 shares of common stock were reserved for future issuance. On May 9, 2013 an additional 185,715 shares of common stock were added to the shares reserved for future issuance under the 2010 Purchase Plan. As of September 30, 2014 , 283,998 shares remained available for issuance under the plan.
Share-based Compensation
Share-based compensation expense for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2014 and the three and nine months ended September 30, 2013 was $3.3 million , $6.9 million , $1.1 million , and $3.1 million , respectively, and is allocated between research and development and general and administrative expenses within the consolidated statements of operations, giving rise to related tax benefits for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2014 and the three and nine months ended September 30, 2013 of $782,000 , $1.6 million , $0 and $0 , respectively.
As of September 30, 2014 , the total compensation cost related to nonvested option awards not yet recognized was $11.4 million and the weighted average period over which it is expected to be recognized is 2.8  years.

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Table of Contents
NewLink Genetics Corporation and Subsidiaries
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
(unaudited)

The following table summarizes the stock option activity for the nine months ended September 30, 2014 :
 
 
Number
of options
 
Weighted
average
exercise
price
 
Weighted
average
remaining
contractual
term (years)
Outstanding at beginning of period
 
4,486,564

 
$
5.89

 
 
Options granted
 
628,805

 
23.26

 
 
Options exercised
 
(291,517
)
 
5.45

 
 
Options forfeited
 
(27,545
)
 
16.21

 
 
Options expired
 

 

 
 
Outstanding at end of period
 
4,796,307

 
$
8.14

 
6.3
Options exercisable at end of period
 
3,601,927

 
$
5.31

 
5.5
The following table summarizes options that were granted during the nine months ended September 30, 2014 , and the range of assumptions used to estimate the fair value of those stock options using a Black-Scholes valuation model:
Risk-free interest rate
 
1.86%-2.24%
Expected dividend yield
 
—%
Expected volatility
 
57.4%-63.5%
Expected term (in years)
 
6.0-7.0
Weighted average grant-date fair value per share
 
$13.67
The intrinsic value of options exercised during the nine months ended September 30, 2014 was $7.3 million . The fair value of awards vested during the nine months ended September 30, 2014 was $6.5 million , which includes $1.7 million in share-based compensation resulting from the vesting in full of one employee's options upon the employee's termination that occurred during the three months ended September 30, 2014 .
Restricted stock is common stock that is subject to restrictions, including risks of forfeiture, determined by the plan committee of the Board of Directors in its sole discretion, for so long as such common stock remains subject to any such restrictions. A holder of restricted stock has all rights of a stockholder with respect to such stock, including the right to vote and to receive dividends thereon, except as otherwise provided in the award agreement relating to such award. Restricted stock awards are equity classified within the consolidated balance sheets. The fair value of each restricted stock grant is estimated on the date of grant using the closing price of Company's Common Stock on the The NASDAQ Stock Market on the date of grant.
During the nine months ended September 30, 2014 and 2013 , respectively, there were 138,420 and 0 shares of restricted stock granted. These restricted stock grants had a weighted average fair value (per share) at date of grant of $21.82 . At September 30, 2014 , and December 31, 2013 , there were 92,720 and 0 shares of unvested restricted stock outstanding, respectively. Compensation expense is determined for the issuance of restricted stock by amortizing over the requisite service period, or the vesting period, the aggregate fair value of the restricted stock awarded based on the closing price of the Company’s common stock on the date of grant.
A summary of the Company’s unvested restricted stock at September 30, 2014 and changes during the nine months ended September 30, 2014 is as follows:
 
 
Restricted Stock
 
Weighted Average Grant Date Fair Value
Unvested at December 31, 2013
 

 
$

Granted
 
138,420

 
21.82

Vested
 
(45,700
)
 
21.38

Forfeited/cancelled
 

 

Unvested restricted stock at September 30, 2014
 
92,720

 
$
22.04

 
 
 
 
 

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Table of Contents
NewLink Genetics Corporation and Subsidiaries
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
(unaudited)

As of September 30, 2014 , the total remaining unrecognized compensation cost related to issuances of restricted stock was approximately $1.6 million and is expected to be recognized over a weighted-average period of 3.0 years.


6.   Income Taxes
For the nine months ended September 30, 2014 and 2013 , the Company incurred an income tax benefit of $7.4 million and $0 , respectively. In October 2014 , the Company entered into an exclusive worldwide license agreement with Genentech, Inc., a member of the Roche Group, or Genentech, for the development and commercialization of NLG919, the Company's IDO (indoleamine 2.3 dioxygenase) pathway inhibitor and a research collaboration for the discovery of next generation IDO and TDO (tryptophan-2.3 dioxygenase) pathway inhibitors, or the Genentech Agreement. The Company's estimated effective annual tax rate at September 30, 2014 has changed from zero due to the projected impact of the Genentech Agreement. Income tax benefit for the nine months ended September 30, 2014 , differs from the amount that would be expected after applying the statutory U.S. federal income tax rate primarily due to the Company's anticipation of entering into the Genentech Agreement and other permanent differences. Income tax expense for the nine months ended September 30, 2013 differs from the amount that would be expected after applying the statutory U.S. federal income tax rate primarily due to the changes in the valuation allowance for deferred taxes.
The valuation allowance for deferred tax assets as of September 30, 2014 and December 31, 2013 was $26.1 million and $25.2 million , respectively. The net change in the total valuation allowance for the nine months ended September 30, 2014 and 2013 was an increase of $900,000 and $5.7 million , respectively. In assessing the realizability of deferred tax assets, management considers whether it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. The ultimate realization of deferred tax assets is dependent upon the generation of future taxable income during the periods in which those temporary differences become deductible. Management considers the scheduled reversal of deferred tax liabilities, projected taxable income, and tax planning strategies in making this assessment. Valuation allowances have been established for the entire amount of the net deferred tax assets as of September 30, 2014 and December 31, 2013 , due to the uncertainty of future recoverability.
Based on analysis from inception through December 31, 2013 , NewLink experienced Section 382 ownership changes in September 2001 and March 2003 and BPS experienced Section 382 ownership changes in January 2006 and January 2011 . These ownership changes limit NewLink’s ability to utilize federal net operating loss carryforwards (and certain other tax attributes) that accrued prior to the respective ownership changes of NewLink and BPS. Additional ownership changes may have occurred subsequent to December 31, 2013 and may occur in the future as a result of events over which the Company will have little or no control, including purchases and sales of the Company’s equity by its 5% stockholders, the emergence of new 5% stockholders, additional equity offerings or redemptions of the Company’s stock or certain changes in the ownership of any of the Company’s 5% stockholders.

Additional analysis will be required to determine whether changes in the Company's ownership since December 31, 2013 have occurred. Any such change could result in significant limitations on some or all of the Company's net operating loss carryforwards and other tax attributes.

Even if another ownership change has not occurred, additional ownership changes may occur in the future as a result of events over which the Company will have little or no control, including purchases and sales of the Company's equity by its 5% stockholders, the emergence of new 5% stockholders, additional equity offerings or redemptions of the Company's stock or certain changes in the ownership of any of its 5% stockholders.

7.   Net Loss per Common Share
Basic net loss per share is calculated by dividing the net loss attributable to common stockholders by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding for the period, without consideration of common stock equivalents. Diluted net loss per share is computed by dividing the net loss attributable to common stockholders by the weighted average number of common share equivalents outstanding for the period determined using the treasury-stock method. For purposes of this calculation, preferred stock, stock options and warrants are considered to be common stock equivalents and are only included in the calculation of diluted net loss per share when their effect is dilutive.

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NewLink Genetics Corporation and Subsidiaries
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
(unaudited)

The following table presents the computation of basic and diluted net loss per common share (in thousands, except share and per share data):
 
 
Three Months Ended
September 30,
 
Nine Months Ended
September 30,
 
 
 
2014
2013
 
2014
2013
 
Historical net loss per share
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Numerator
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net loss attributable to common stockholders
 
(5,598
)
(8,123
)
 
(23,997
)
(23,134
)
 
Denominator
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Weighted-average common shares outstanding (basic and diluted)
 
27,914,782

25,702,043

 
27,800,246

25,067,772

 
Basic and diluted net loss per share
 
$
(0.20
)
$
(0.32
)
 
$
(0.86
)
$
(0.92
)
 
As of September 30, 2014 and 2013 respectively, 4.9 million and 4.5 million common equivalent shares of potentially dilutive securities were not included in the calculation of diluted net loss per common share because to do so would be anti-dilutive.


8.
Commitments and Contingencies
In June 2014 , the Company entered into a Development and Manufacturing Terms and Conditions and a Development and Process Transfer Program Leading to Commercial Manufacturing for algenpantucel-L HyperAcute Pancreas with WuXi AppTec, Inc., or WuXi, or collectively, the WuXi Agreement. The WuXi Agreement is intended to establish a source of supply for algenpantucel-L for commercial sale, if and when that drug is approved by the FDA. Under the WuXi Agreement, the Company granted WuXi a non-exclusive right to use certain starting materials and the Company's confidential information to develop manufacturing processes and to manufacture cell material to be formulated into algenpantucel-L. WuXi will adapt facilities and equipment for production, generate batch records and other documents, perform studies and test manufacturing runs and conduct process validation and characterization.

In August 2014 , the Company signed a letter agreement with the United States Defense Threat Reduction Agency, or DTRA, under which the Company will conduct studies with the goal of bringing an Ebola vaccine product candidate licensed from the Public Health Agency of Canada closer to human clinical trials. The agreement provided funding of $1.0 million with additional funding subject to final negotiation and will fund Investigational New Drug (IND)-enabling preclinical toxicology studies and includes the manufacture of clinical materials. In September 2014 , the agreement was modified to increase the amount of funding available prior to final agreement by an additional $1.9 million , bringing the total pre-contract funding to $2.9 million . Under the agreement, the Company may bill DTRA for 85% of the costs it incurs, and once the final contract is signed, the Company may bill DTRA for the remaining 15% of the costs. The Company has committed resources in excess of $8.4 million to further these studies.

In October 2014 , the Company entered into the Genentech Agreement, which provides for the development of NLG919, the Company's IDO pathway inhibitor. The parties also entered into a research collaboration for the discovery of next generation IDO/TDO compounds. Under the terms of the agreement, the Company will receive an upfront non-refundable payment of $150.0 million . The Company will be eligible to receive in excess of $1 billion in milestone payments based on achievement of certain predetermined milestones as well as escalating royalties on potential commercial sales of multiple products by Genentech.


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ITEM 2.    MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

This Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, and such statements are subject to the “safe harbor” created by those sections.  Forward-looking statements are based on our management’s beliefs and assumptions and on information available to our management as of the date hereof. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terms such as “may,” “will,” “should,” “could,” “would,” “expect,” “plans,” “anticipates,” “believes,” “estimates,” “projects,” “predicts,” “potential” and similar expressions intended to identify forward-looking statements. Examples of these statements include, but are not limited to, statements regarding: our plans to develop and commercialize our product candidates; our ongoing and planned preclinical studies and clinical trials, including the timing for completion of enrollment and outcome of our Phase 3 clinical trial for our algenpantucel-L cancer immunotherapy; the timing of release of data from ongoing clinical studies; the timing of and our ability to obtain and maintain regulatory approvals for our product candidates; the clinical utility of our product candidates; our plans to leverage our existing technologies to discover and develop additional product candidates; our ability to quickly and efficiently identify and develop product candidates; our commercialization, marketing and manufacturing capabilities and strategy; our intellectual property position; the potential benefits of strategic collaboration agreements and our ability to enter into strategic arrangements; our estimates regarding expenses, future revenues, capital requirements and needs for additional financing; and other risks and uncertainties, including those described in Part II, Item 1A, “Risk Factors” of this Quarterly Report and in our other periodic reports filed from time to time with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, including our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2013.  Our actual results could differ materially from those discussed in our forward-looking statements for many reasons, including those risks. You should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements, which apply only as of the date of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. You should read this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q completely. Except as required by law, we assume no obligation to update these forward-looking statements publicly, or to update the reasons actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements, even if new information becomes available in the future.

The following discussion and analysis should be read in conjunction with the unaudited financial statements and notes thereto included in Part I, Item 1 of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q.


Overview

We are a biopharmaceutical company focused on discovering, developing and commercializing novel immunotherapeutic products to improve treatment options for patients with cancer. Our portfolio includes biologic and small-molecule immunotherapy product candidates intended to treat a wide range of oncology indications. Our product candidates are designed to harness multiple components of the immune system to combat cancer without significant incremental toxicity, either as a monotherapy or in combination with other treatment regimens. We have two proprietary cancer immunotherapy technology platforms that independently stimulate immune activation and disrupt tumor-mediated immunosuppression; HyperAcute vaccines which induce immune activation and IDO (Indoleamine 2.3-dioxygenase) pathway inhibitors which block immunosuppression.

Our lead HyperAcute product candidate, algenpantucel-L (HyperAcute Pancreas) is being studied in two randomized Phase 3 clinical trials. The first trial, IMPRESS (Immunotherapy for Pancreatic Resectible Cancer Survival Study) has completed enrollment of 722 patients with resected pancreas cancer and is being performed under a Special Protocol Assessment, or SPA, with the United States Food and Drug Administration, or FDA. A second Phase 3 Trial, PILLAR (Pancreatic Immunotherapy with algenpantucel-L for Locally Advanced non-Resectible disease), is currently enrolling patients. We initiated these trials based on encouraging Phase 2 data that suggest improvement in both disease-free and overall survival. We have received Fast Track and Orphan Drug designations from the FDA for algenpantucel-L for the adjuvant treatment of patients with surgically-resected pancreatic cancer and Orphan Medicinal Product designation for algenpantucel-L from the European Commission. The primary endpoint for our IMPRESS trial with algenpantucel-L for patients with surgically-resected pancreatic cancer is overall survival and, as determined by the SPA, the first interim analysis was conducted when 222 deaths were reported for the study, which occurred during the quarter ending March 31, 2014. As part of this planned interim analysis, the independent data safety monitoring committee, or DSMC, met to review available patient data. As anticipated, following their review, the DSMC recommended that the study should proceed as planned, without modification. A second interim analysis is planned upon reaching 333 patient events and, if needed, a final analysis is planned at 444 patient events. Our additional HyperAcute product candidates in clinical development include tergenpumatucel-L (HyperAcute Lung), dorgenmeltucel-L (HyperAcute Melanoma), HyperAcute Prostate and HyperAcute Renal. To date, our HyperAcute product candidates have been dosed in more than 600 cancer patients, either as a monotherapy or in combination with other treatments and have demonstrated a favorable safety profile.


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Our HyperAcute immunotherapy platform creates novel biologic products that are designed to stimulate the human immune system to recognize and attack cancer cells. HyperAcute product candidates are composed of human cancer cells that are tumor specific, but not patient specific. These cells have been modified to express alpha-gal, a carbohydrate for which humans have pre-existing immunity. These alpha-gal-modified cells stimulate a rapid and powerful human immune response that trains the body's natural defenses to seek out and destroy cancer cells. The objective of HyperAcute immunotherapies is to elicit an antitumor response by "educating" the immune system to attack a patient's own cancer cells. HyperAcute immunotherapies do not require any tissue from individual patients and use intact whole cells rather than cell fragments or purified proteins. We believe these unique properties of HyperAcute products result in the stimulation of a robust immune response.

In June 2014, we entered into a Development and Manufacturing Terms and Conditions and a Development and Process Transfer Program Leading to Commercial Manufacturing for algenpantucel-L HyperAcute Pancreas with WuXi AppTec, Inc., or WuXi, or collectively, the WuXi Agreement. The WuXi Agreement is intended to establish a source of supply for algenpantucel-L for commercial sale, if and when that drug is approved by the FDA. Under the WuXi Agreement, we granted WuXi a non-exclusive right to use certain starting materials and our confidential information to develop manufacturing processes and to manufacture cell material to be formulated into algenpantucel-L. WuXi will adapt facilities and equipment for production, generate batch records and other documents, perform studies and test manufacturing runs and conduct process validation and characterization.

In addition to our HyperAcute platform, we have an active drug discovery and clinical development program focused on the IDO (indoleamine-(2,3)-dioxygenase) pathway. Our IDO pathway inhibitors represent a key class of immune checkpoint inhibitors that are regarded as potential breakthrough approaches to cancer therapy. We currently have two distinct IDO pathway inhibitor product candidates in clinical development, indoximod and NLG919, with different and potentially complementary mechanisms of action. Additionally, we are conducting ongoing drug discovery work to explore new chemical entities, which inhibit IDO as well as a related target, TDO (tryptophan-2,3 dioxgynase), as potential new anticancer agents. Our most advanced IDO pathway inhibitor, indoximod, is in multiple Phase 1 and 2 clinical trials for the treatment of patients with breast, prostate, pancreas, and brain cancers. Additionally, NLG919 is currently in Phase 1 clinical development for patients with recurrent advanced solid tumors. We have generated encouraging preclinical data that demonstrate the potential of combining multiple immunotherapies including multiple checkpoint inhibitors that target the IDO pathway for enhanced anti-tumor activity.

Our small molecule IDO pathway inhibitor drug candidates are designed to counteract immunosuppressive effects of the IDO pathway, a fundamental mechanism regulating immune response. In many different cancers, IDO can be overexpressed directly either on cancer cells or by antigen presenting cells in the tumor microenvironment, representing a substantial drug development opportunity. When IDO is expressed by developing cancers, IDO pathway activity creates an immunosuppressive environment that shifts the immune response from anti-cancer to cancer tolerance. Multiple elements of the immune system are affected by this shift, including T-cells, regulatory T-cells, and dendritic cells, resulting in the survival of malignant cells that might otherwise be recognized and attacked by the immune system. Inhibiting the IDO pathway reprograms the immune response from tolerance back to an active anti-cancer response.

In October 2014, we entered into an exclusive worldwide license agreement with Genentech, Inc., a member of the Roche Group, or Genentech, for the development and commercialization of NLG919, one of the Company's IDO (indoleamine 2.3-dioxygenase) pathway inhibitors, and a research collaboration for the discovery of next generation IDO and TDO (tryptophan-2.3 dioxygenase) pathway inhibitors, or the Genentech Agreement. Under the terms of the agreement, the Company will receive an upfront non-refundable payment of $150 million. The Company will be eligible to receive in excess of $1 billion in milestone payments based on achievement of certain predetermined milestones as well as escalating royalties on potential commercial sales of multiple products by Genentech. The Company did not license indoximod under the Genentech Agreement, and expects to continue its development.

BioProtection Systems Corporation, or BPS, was founded by us in 2005 to research, develop and commercialize vaccines to control the spread of emerging lethal viruses and infectious diseases, improve the efficacy of existing vaccines and provide rapid-response prophylactic and therapeutic treatment for pathogens most likely to enter the human population through pandemics or acts of bioterrorism. BPS is based on three core technologies, each of which can be leveraged into the infectious disease or biodefense fields.

The first technology is a replication-competent recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus, or rVSV, an advanced vaccine technology developed for the Ebola and Marburg viruses. This platform, licensed from the government of Canada, utilizes the rVSV vector to induce immunity against Ebola and Marburg viruses when replacing the VSV glycoprotein with corresponding glycoproteins from filoviruses.

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In October 2014, two Phase 1 clinical trials for the Company’s Ebola vaccine product candidate (VSV) ZEBOV were initiated, one at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research in Silver Springs, Maryland, United States and the second at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases at the National Institute of Health Clinical Center in Bethesda, Maryland. The Phase 1 clinical trials will test the vaccine on healthy volunteers to assess its safety and toxicity.  The trials will also evaluate whether the vaccine induces an immune response to Ebola virus and will assess the appropriate dosage.   The Company's Phase 1 clinical trials are expected to have the last dose delivered to volunteers by January 2015, with final data collection for safety and tolerability estimated to be completed in 2015 and estimated study completion dates in 2016.

The second technology is our HyperAcute immunotherapy, which BPS is currently using to focus on enhancing vaccines for infectious diseases. We have been investigating HyperAcute recombinant vaccine candidates using H1N1, H5N1 and H7N9 influenza viruses in animal experiments. Other HyperAcute recombinant infectious disease vaccines are currently under investigation.

The third technology is based on a yellow fever virus platform, which integrates our HyperAcute immunotherapy mechanism in the development of a yellow fever vaccine. In parallel, the yellow fever virus platform is also being used to develop combination vaccines to protect against yellow fever and other viruses (such as Hepatitis B).

We incurred net losses of $5.6 million , and $24.0 million , for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2014 , respectively. We expect our losses to increase over the next several years as we advance our product candidates through late-stage clinical trials, pursue regulatory approval of our product candidates, and begin to build our commercialization activities in anticipation of one or more of our product candidates receiving marketing approval.

On October 25, 2011, we filed a Certificate of Amendment of our Restated Certificate of Incorporation with the Secretary of State of Delaware effecting a 2.1-for-one reverse split of our common stock. All share and per share amounts have been retroactively restated where applicable in the accompanying financial statements and notes for all periods presented.


Financial Overview

Revenues

During the three and nine month periods ending September 30, 2014 , and September 30, 2013 , we did not generate any revenue from product sales. We generated $2.8 million and $3.3 million in grant revenue for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2014 , respectively, which is primarily attributable to research and development being performed by our subsidiary, BPS, under contracts and grants with the Department of Defense, or DOD, and the National Institutes of Health, or NIH. The increase in grant revenue during the three months ended September 30, 2014 relative to the prior three month period is primarily due to contracts related to the development of an Ebola vaccine product candidate by BPS.

In the future, we may generate revenue from a variety of sources, including product sales (if we develop products that are approved for sale), license fees, and milestone, research and development and royalty payments in connection with strategic collaborations or licenses of our intellectual property. We expect that any revenue we generate will fluctuate from quarter to quarter as a result of the timing and amount of license fees, research and development reimbursements, milestone and other payments we may receive under potential strategic collaborations, and the amount and timing of payments we may receive upon the sale of any products, if approved, to the extent any are successfully commercialized. If we fail to complete the development of our product candidates in a timely manner or to obtain regulatory approval for them, our ability to generate future revenue, and our results of operations and financial position, would be materially adversely affected.

Research and Development Expenses

Research and development expenses consist of expenses incurred in connection with the discovery and development of our product candidates. These expenses consist primarily of:

employee-related expenses, which include salaries, bonuses, benefits and share-based compensation;
the cost of acquiring and manufacturing clinical trial materials;
expenses incurred under agreements with contract research organizations, investigative sites and consultants that conduct our clinical trials and a substantial portion of our preclinical studies;

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facilities, depreciation of fixed assets and other allocated expenses, which include direct and allocated expenses for rent and maintenance of facilities and equipment related to research and development;
expenses incurred under agreements with contract manufacturing organizations;
license fees for and milestone payments related to in-licensed products and technology;
costs associated with non-clinical activities and regulatory approvals; and
expenses incurred under agreements to license our product candidates.
We expense research and development expenses as incurred.

Product candidates in late stages of clinical development generally have higher development costs than those in earlier stages of clinical development, primarily due to the increased size, duration and complexity of later stage clinical trials. We plan to increase our research and development expenses for the foreseeable future as we seek to complete development of our most advanced product candidates, and to further advance our earlier-stage research and development projects. The following tables summarize our research and development expenses for the periods indicated:
 
Research and Development Expenses by Product
(In thousands)
(unaudited)
 
Three Months Ended
September 30,
 
Nine Months Ended
September 30,
 
2014
 
2013
 
2014
 
2013
HyperAcute immunotherapy technology
$
5,795

 
$
4,620

 
$
15,374

 
$
12,331

IDO pathway inhibitor technology
1,723

 
997

 
4,126

 
3,917

Other research and development
3,378

 
508

 
4,260

 
1,257

Total research and development expenses
$
10,896

 
$
6,125

 
$
23,760

 
$
17,505


Other research and development primarily consists of expenses of BPS related to developing our infectious disease technologies.

Research and Development Expenses by Category
(In thousands)
(unaudited)
 
Three Months Ended
September 30,
 
Nine Months Ended
September 30,
 
2014
 
2013
 
2014
 
2013
Compensation
$
3,039

 
$
2,264

 
$
9,219

 
$
6,801

Equipment, supplies and occupancy
1,354

 
1,668

 
4,103

 
4,407

Outside clinical and other
6,503

 
2,193

 
10,438

 
6,297

Total research and development expenses
$
10,896

 
$
6,125

 
$
23,760

 
$
17,505


At this time, we cannot accurately estimate or know the nature, specific timing or costs necessary to complete clinical development activities for our product candidates. We are subject to the numerous risks and uncertainties associated with developing biopharmaceutical products including the uncertain cost and outcome of ongoing and planned clinical trials, the possibility that the FDA or another regulatory authority may require us to conduct clinical or non-clinical testing in addition to trials that we have planned, rapid and significant technological changes, frequent new product and service introductions and enhancements, evolving industry standards in the life sciences industry and our future need for additional capital. In addition, we currently have limited clinical data concerning the safety and efficacy of our product candidates. A change in the outcome of any of these variables with respect to the development of any of our product candidates could result in a significant change in the costs and timing of our research and development expenses.


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General and Administrative Expenses

General and administrative expenses consist principally of salaries and related costs for personnel in executive, finance, business development, information technology, legal and human resources functions. Other general and administrative expenses include facility costs not otherwise associated with research and development expenses, intellectual property prosecution and defense costs and professional fees for legal, consulting, auditing and tax services.

We anticipate that our general and administrative expenses will continue to increase over the next several years for, among others, the following reasons:

we expect our general and administrative expenses to increase as a result of increased payroll, expanded infrastructure and higher consulting, legal, auditing and tax services and investor relations costs, and director and officer insurance premiums associated with being a public company;
we expect to incur increased general and administrative expenses to support our research and development activities, which we expect to expand as we continue to advance the clinical development of our product candidates; and
we expect to incur increased expenses related to the planned sales and marketing of our product candidates, which may include recruiting a specialty sales force, in anticipation of commercial launch before we receive regulatory approval, if any, of a product candidate. 
Interest Income and Interest Expense

Interest income consists of interest earned on our cash and cash equivalents and certificates of deposit. The primary objective of our investment policy is capital preservation. We expect our interest income to increase as we invest the net proceeds from our offerings pending their use in our operations.

Interest expense consists primarily of interest and amortization of deferred financing costs associated with our notes payable and obligations under capital leases.



Tax Loss Carryforwards

The valuation allowance for deferred tax assets as of September 30, 2014 and December 31, 2013 was $26.1 million and $25.2 million , respectively. The net change in the total valuation allowance for the three months ended September 30, 2014 and 2013 was an increase of $900,000 and $5.7 million , respectively. In assessing the realizability of deferred tax assets, we consider whether it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. The ultimate realization of deferred tax assets is dependent upon the generation of future taxable income during the periods in which those temporary differences become deductible. We consider the scheduled reversal of deferred tax liabilities, projected taxable income, and tax planning strategies in making this assessment. Valuation allowances have been established for the entire amount of the net deferred tax assets as of September 30, 2014 and December 31, 2013 , due to the uncertainty of future recoverability.

As of September 30, 2014 and December 31, 2013 , we had federal net operating loss carryforwards of $87.3 million and $87.3 million and federal research credit carryforwards of $4.5 million and $4.3 million , respectively, that expire at various dates from 2019 through 2034. Sections 382 and 383 of the Internal Revenue Code limit a corporation’s ability to utilize its net operating loss carryforwards and certain other tax attributes (including research credits) to offset any future taxable income or tax if the corporation experiences a cumulative ownership change of more than 50% over any rolling three year period. State net operating loss carryforwards (and certain other tax attributes) may be similarly limited. An ownership change can therefore result in significantly greater tax liabilities than a corporation would incur in the absence of such a change and any increased liabilities could adversely affect the corporation’s business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flow.

Based on analysis from inception through December 31, 2013, we experienced Section 382 ownership changes in September 2001 and March 2003 and BPS experienced Section 382 ownership changes in January 2006 and January 2011. These ownership changes limit our ability to utilize federal net operating loss carryforwards (and certain other tax attributes) that accrued prior to our ownership changes and those of BPS. Additional ownership changes may have occurred subsequent to December 31, 2013 and may occur in the future as a result of events over which the Company will have little or no control, including purchases and sales of the Company’s equity by its 5% stockholders, the emergence of new 5% stockholders, additional equity offerings or redemptions of the Company’s stock or certain changes in the ownership of any of the Company’s 5% stockholders.

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Additional analysis will be required to determine whether changes in our ownership since December 31, 2013 have occurred. Any such change could result in significant limitations on some or all of our net operating loss carryforwards and other tax attributes.

Even if another ownership change has not occurred, additional ownership changes may occur in the future as a result of events over which we will have little or no control, including purchases and sales of our equity by our 5% stockholders, the emergence of new 5% stockholders, additional equity offerings or redemptions of our stock or certain changes in the ownership of any of our 5% stockholders.

For the nine months ended September 30, 2014 and 2013 , the Company incurred an income tax benefit of $7.4 million and $0, respectively. Our estimated effective annual tax rate at September 30, 2014 has changed due to the projected impact of the Genentech Agreement.



Critical Accounting Policies and Significant Judgments and Estimates

We have prepared our financial statements in accordance with United States generally accepted accounting principles. Our preparation of these financial statements requires us to make estimates, assumptions and judgments that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, expenses and related disclosures at the date of the financial statements, as well as revenues and expenses during the reporting periods. We evaluate our estimates and judgments on an ongoing basis. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various other factors that we believe are reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying value of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results could therefore differ materially from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions. We have reviewed our critical accounting policies and estimates with the Audit Committee of our Board of Directors.

Our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2013 , discusses our most critical accounting policies. Since December 31, 2013 , there have been no material changes in the critical accounting policies discussed in the 2013 Annual Report.

On May 28, 2014, the FASB issued ASU No. 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, which requires an entity to recognize the amount of revenue to which it expects to be entitled for the transfer of promised goods or services to customers. The ASU will replace most existing revenue recognition guidance in U.S. GAAP when it becomes effective. The new standard is effective for the Company on January 1, 2017. Early application is not permitted. The standard permits the use of either the retrospective or cumulative effect transition method. The Company is evaluating the effect that ASU 2014-09 will have on its consolidated financial statements and related disclosures. The Company has not yet selected a transition method nor has it determined the effect of the standard on its ongoing financial reporting.

In June 2014, the FASB issued ASU No. 2014-10, Development Stage Entities (Topic 915): Elimination of Certain Financial Reporting Requirements. The ASU eliminates the distinction of a development stage entity and certain related disclosure requirements, including the elimination of inception-to-date information on the statements of operations, cash flows and stockholders' equity. The amendments in the ASU will be effective prospectively for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2014, and interim periods within those annual periods, however early adoption is permitted. The Company early adopted this standard effective June 30, 2014. Adoption of this standard did not have a material impact on our condensed consolidated financial statements.



Results of Operations

Comparison of the Three Months Ended September 30, 2014 and 2013

Revenues. Revenues for the three months ended September 30, 2014 were $2.8 million , increasing from $265,000 for the same period in 2013 . The increase in revenue of $2.5 million was due to an increase in grant revenue earned by BPS under various DOD contracts, including primarily contracts related to the development of an Ebola vaccine product candidate.


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Research and Development Expenses. Research and development expenses for the three months ended September 30, 2014 were $10.9 million , increasing from $6.1 million for the same period in 2013 . The $4.8 million increase was due to an increase of $3.9 million in contract manufacturing and consulting expenses for work being done due to expanded activities, accompanied by a $775,000 increase in personnel-related expenses, a $379,000 increase in clinical trial expense, and offset by a $244,000 decrease in supplies. The increase in clinical trial, manufacturing and consulting expenses is primarily attributable to the development of an Ebola vaccine product candidate and the increase in personnel-related expense is attributable to both increases in headcount and compensation levels, including share-based compensation.

General and Administrative Expenses. General and administrative expenses for the three months ended September 30, 2014 were $4.9 million , increasing from $2.3 million for the same period in 2013 . The $2.6 million increase was primarily due to an increase of $1.9 million in share-based compensation expense, which includes $1.7 million in share-based compensation resulting from the vesting in full of one employee's options upon the employee's termination during the three months ended September 30, 2014 , accompanied by increases of $331,000 in wages and employee benefits, $249,000 in legal and consulting, and $142,000 in insurance and other expenses.
Income Tax Benefit. Our estimated effective annual tax rate at September 30, 2014 has changed due to the projected impact of the Genentech Agreement.
Net Loss. Net loss for the three months ended September 30, 2014 was $5.6 million , decreasing from $8.1 million for the same period in 2013 due to the changes in revenue earned, research and development and general and administrative expenses and income tax benefits discussed above. The weighted average common shares outstanding for the first quarter 2014 were 27.9 million , resulting in a loss per share of $0.20 , as compared to 25.7 million and $0.32 per share for third quarter 2013. The increase in the number of weighted average common shares outstanding was primarily attributable to shares issued in our ATM Offering during the fourth quarter of 2013 and the first quarter of 2014.

Comparison of the Nine Months Ended September 30, 2014 and 2013

Revenues. Revenues for the nine months ended September 30, 2014 were $3.3 million , increasing from $799,000 for the same period in 2013 . The increase in revenue of $2.5 million was due to an increase in revenue earned by BPS under various DOD contracts.

Research and Development Expenses. Research and development expenses for the nine months ended September 30, 2014 were $23.8 million , increasing from $17.5 million for the same period in 2013 . The $6.3 million increase was due to a $3.2 million increase in contract research and manufacturing expense, accompanied by an increase of $2.4 million in personnel-related expenses, $585,000 increase in clinical trial expense and $356,000 in consulting fees and other expenses. offset by a $304,000 decrease in equipment and supplies. The increase in contract research and manufacturing and consulting fees is primarily attributable to the development of an Ebola vaccine product candidate, and the increase in personnel-related expense is attributable to both increases in headcount and compensation levels, including share-based compensation.

General and Administrative Expenses. General and administrative expenses for the nine months ended September 30, 2014 were $11.0 million , increasing from $6.5 million for the same period in 2013 . The $4.5 million increase was primarily due to an increase of $3.3 million in personnel-related expenses, including share-based compensation expense, which includes $1.7 million in share-based compensation resulting from the vesting in full of one employee's options upon the employee's termination during the three months ended September 30, 2014 , accompanied by $691,000 in other expenses and increases of $599,000 in legal and consulting fees.

Income Tax Benefit. Our estimated effective annual tax rate at September 30, 2014 has changed due to the projected impact of the Genentech Agreement.

Net Loss. Net loss for the nine months ended September 30, 2014 was $24.0 million increasing from $23.1 million for the same period in 2013 due to the changes in revenue earned, research and development, and general and administrative expenses discussed above. The weighted average common shares outstanding for the first nine months of 2014 were 27.8 million , resulting in a loss per share of $0.86 , as compared to 25.1 million and $0.92 per share for first nine months of 2013. The increase in the number of weighted average common shares outstanding was primarily attributable to shares issued in our ATM Offering during the fourth quarter of 2013 and the first quarter of 2014.



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Liquidity and Capital Resources

Before our IPO, we funded our operations principally through the private placement of equity securities, debt financing and interest income.

Since our IPO, we have funded our operations principally through public offerings of common stock. On November 16, 2011, we received proceeds, net of offering costs, of $37.6 million from the issuance of 6.2 million shares of common stock in our IPO. On February 4, 2013, we received proceeds, net of offering costs, of $49.0 million from the issuance of 4.6 million shares of common stock in our follow-on offering. We entered into a Sales Agreement with Cantor Fitzgerald & Co., dated as of September 5, 2013, or the Cantor Agreement, under which we may sell up to $60.0 million of our common stock in one or more placements at prevailing market prices. Any such sales would be effected pursuant to our registration statement on Form S-3 (333-185721), declared effective by the the SEC on January 4, 2013. As of March 31, 2014 , we had sold 1.8 million shares under the ATM Offering, raising a total of $45.0 million in net proceeds. Subsequent to March 31, 2014 and through the date of this filing, we sold no additional shares of common stock under the ATM Offering.

In October 2014, we entered into the Genentech Agreement. Under the terms of the agreement, we will receive an upfront non-refundable payment of $150 million. We will be eligible to receive in excess of $1 billion in milestone payments based on achievement of certain predetermined milestones as well as escalating royalties on potential commercial sales of multiple products by Genentech.

As of September 30, 2014 , we had cash, cash equivalents and certificates of deposit of approximately $67.7 million .  The following table sets forth the primary sources and uses of cash and cash equivalents for each of the periods set forth below:

Sources and Uses of Cash and Cash Equivalents
(in thousands)
 
 
Nine Months Ended
September 30,
 
 
 
2014
 
2013
 
 
Net cash used in operating activities
$
(21,609
)
 
$
(17,756
)
 
 
Net cash (used in) provided by investing activities
(17,731
)
 
214

 
 
Net cash provided by financing activities
29,119

 
49,256

 
 
Net decrease in cash and cash equivalents
$
(10,221
)
 
$
31,714

 

For the nine months ended September 30, 2014 and 2013 , we used cash of $21.6 million and $17.8 million for our operating activities, respectively.  The cash used by operating activities in the nine months ended September 30, 2014 primarily resulted from our net loss of $24.0 million , offset by non-cash expenses of $7.7 million (primarily share-based compensation and depreciation) but increased by changes in operating assets and liabilities of $5.2 million . The cash used by operating activities in the nine months ended September 30, 2013 primarily resulted from our net loss of $23.1 million , offset by non-cash expenses of $3.8 million, and offset by changes in operating assets and liabilities of $1.6 million .

For the nine months ended September 30, 2014 and 2013 , our investing activities used cash of $17.7 million and provided cash of $214,000 , respectively. The cash used in investing activities in the nine months ended September 30, 2014 primarily was a result of the purchase of investments for $16.4 million and the purchase of fixed assets of $1.3 million. The cash provided by investing activities in the nine months ended September 30, 2013 was primarily a result of the maturity of certificates of deposit of $1.5 million, offset by the purchase of equipment of $1.3 million.

For the nine months ended September 30, 2014 and 2013 , our financing activities provided $29.1 million and $49.3 million , respectively. The cash provided by financing activities in the nine months ended September 30, 2014 was primarily due to the sale and issuance of common stock of $27.5 million , accompanied by the exercise of stock options of $1.6 million , offset by the repurchase of common stock of $222,000 . The cash provided by financing activities in the nine months ended September 30, 2013 was primarily due to the sale and issuance of common stock of $49.4 million .




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Operating Capital Requirements

We anticipate that we will continue to generate significant operating losses in the future as we incur expenses related to the research and development of our HyperAcute immunotherapy and IDO pathway inhibitor product candidates, build commercial capabilities and expand our corporate infrastructure. Including the funds received from our follow-on public offering in February 2013 and the funds received to date from our ATM Offering, we believe that we have sufficient cash and cash equivalents and certificates of deposit to fund our operations well into 2015, although not through commercialization and launch of revenue producing products. Finally, if the Hart-Scott-Rodino waiting period with respect to the Genentech Agreement expires in 2014, as expected, the Company estimates that it will have approximately $180 million in cash, cash equivalents and certificates of deposit as of December 31, 2014.

We may seek to sell additional equity securities, which may include sales of our common stock pursuant to the Cantor Agreement, if any, or otherwise, or debt securities or to obtain a credit facility if our available cash and cash equivalents are insufficient to satisfy our liquidity requirements or if we develop additional opportunities to do so. The sale of additional equity and debt securities may result in additional dilution to our stockholders. If we raise additional funds through the issuance of debt securities or preferred stock, these securities could have rights senior to those of our common stock and could contain covenants that would restrict our operations. We may require additional capital beyond our currently forecasted amounts. Any such required additional capital may not be available on reasonable terms, if at all. If we are unable to obtain additional financing, we may be required to reduce the scope of, delay or eliminate some or all of our planned research, development and commercialization activities, which could harm our business.

Because of the numerous risks and uncertainties associated with research, development and commercialization of biopharmaceutical products, we are unable to estimate the exact amounts of our working capital requirements. Our future funding requirements will depend on many factors, including, but not limited to:

the scope, progress, results and costs of clinical trials for our product candidates, and discovery and development activities related to new product candidates;
the timing of, and the costs involved in, obtaining regulatory approvals for our product candidates;
the cost of commercialization activities if any of our product candidates are approved for sale, including marketing, sales, distribution and facilities and occupancy costs;
the cost of manufacturing our product candidates and any products we commercialize, including our costs under the WuXi Agreement, whether or not a sufficient quantity of cell material is manufactured under that agreement;
our ability to establish and maintain strategic partnerships, licensing or other arrangements and the financial terms of such agreements;
whether, and to what extent, we are required to repay our outstanding government provided loans;
the costs involved in preparing, filing, prosecuting, maintaining, defending and enforcing patent claims, including litigation costs and the outcome of such litigation; and
the timing, receipt and amount of sales of, or royalties on, our future products, if any.

Contractual Obligations and Commitments

In June 2014, we entered into a Development and Manufacturing Terms and Conditions and a Development and Process Transfer Program Leading to Commercial Manufacturing for algenpantucel-L HyperAcute Pancreas with WuXi AppTec, Inc., or WuXi, or collectively, the WuXi Agreement. The WuXi Agreement is intended to establish a source of supply for algenpantucel-L for commercial sale, if and when that drug is approved by the FDA. Under the WuXi Agreement, we granted WuXi a non-exclusive right to use certain starting materials and our confidential information to develop manufacturing processes and to manufacture cell material to be formulated into algenpantucel-L. WuXi will adapt facilities and equipment for production, generate batch records and other documents, perform studies and test manufacturing runs and conduct process validation and characterization.


Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements

We did not have during the periods presented, and we do not currently have, any off-balance sheet arrangements, as defined under SEC rules.


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ITEM 3.    QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK

We are exposed to market risk related to changes in interest rates. As of September 30, 2014 and December 31, 2013 , we had cash and cash equivalents and certificates of deposit of $67.7 million and $61.5 million , respectively, consisting of money market funds and bank certificates of deposit. Our primary exposure to market risk is interest rate sensitivity, which is affected by changes in the general level of United States interest rates, particularly because our investments are in certificates of deposit. Our certificates of deposit are subject to interest rate risk and will fall in value if market interest rates increase. Due to the short-term duration of our investment portfolio and the low risk profile of our investments, an immediate 10% change in interest rates would not have a material effect on the fair market value of our portfolio. We expect to have the ability to hold our certificates of deposit until maturity, and therefore we would not expect our operating results or cash flows to be affected to any significant degree by the effect of a change in market interest rates on our investments.

Our long-term debt and our capital lease obligations bear interest at fixed rates. Any change in interest rates would have an immaterial impact on our financial statements.



ITEM 4.    CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES

Evaluation of Disclosure Controls and Procedures

We carried out an evaluation required by the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, under the supervision and with the participation of our chief executive officer and chief financial officer, of the effectiveness of the design and operation of our disclosure controls and procedures, as defined in Rule 13a-15(e) of the Exchange Act, as of September 30, 2014 . Based on this evaluation, our chief executive officer and chief financial officer concluded that, as of September 30, 2014 , our disclosure controls and procedures were effective to provide reasonable assurance that information required to be disclosed by us in the reports that we file or submit under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized, and reported within the time periods specified in the rules and forms of the SEC and to provide reasonable assurance that such information is accumulated and communicated to our management, including our chief executive officer and chief financial officer, as appropriate to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosures.

Changes in Internal Control over Financial Reporting
We implemented a new enterprise resource planning, or ERP, system in the third quarter of 2013. As of September 30, 2014 , the ERP system was used for certain manufacturing and finance purposes and we expect the ERP system to be used for other manufacturing and finance functions in 2014. The new ERP system did not eliminate any existing controls over financial reporting. In addition, the ERP system can support internal controls over some processes and accounts that our previous accounting system did not support.
With the exception of the new ERP system, there were no changes in our internal control over financial reporting during the period covered by this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q that have materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.



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PART II. OTHER INFORMATION

Item 1A.     RISK FACTORS
Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. In evaluating our business, investors should carefully consider the following risk factors. These risk factors contain, in addition to historical information, forward-looking statements that involve substantial risks and uncertainties. Our actual results could differ materially from the results discussed in the forward-looking statements. Factors that could cause or contribute to such differences include, but are not limited to, those discussed below. The order in which the following risks are presented is not intended to reflect the magnitude of the risks described. The occurrence of any of the following risks could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. In that case, the trading price of our common stock could decline, and you may lose all or part of your investment.
Business Risks
Risks Relating to Clinical Development and Commercialization of Our Product Candidates
Our near term prospects are highly dependent on algenpantucel-L for patients with resected pancreatic cancer. If we fail to complete, or fail to demonstrate safety and efficacy in clinical trials, fail to obtain regulatory approval or fail to successfully commercialize algenpantucel-L, our business would be harmed and the value of our securities would likely decline.
We must be evaluated in light of the uncertainties and complexities affecting a development stage biopharmaceutical company. We have not completed clinical development for any of our products. Our most advanced product candidate is algenpantucel-L. The FDA must approve algenpantucel-L before it can be marketed or sold. Our ability to obtain FDA approval of algenpantucel-L depends on, among other things, completion of one or both of our Phase 3 clinical trials, whether our Phase 3 clinical trials of algenpantucel-L demonstrate statistically significant achievement of the applicable clinical trial endpoints with no significant safety issues and whether the FDA agrees that the data from either of our Phase 3 clinical trials of algenpantucel-L are sufficient to support approval. The final results of our Phase 3 clinical trials of algenpantucel-L may not meet the FDA’s requirements to approve the product for marketing, and the FDA may otherwise determine that our manufacturing processes, facilities or raw materials are insufficient to warrant approval. We may need to conduct more clinical trials than we currently anticipate. Furthermore, even if we do receive FDA approval, we may not be successful in commercializing algenpantucel-L. If any of these events occur, our business could be materially harmed and the value of our common stock would likely decline.
If our product candidates do not meet safety and efficacy endpoints in clinical trials, they will not receive regulatory approval, and we will be unable to market them. We have not completed testing of any of our product candidates in controlled clinical trials.
The clinical development and regulatory approval process is expensive and time-consuming. The timing of any future product approval cannot be accurately predicted. If we fail to obtain regulatory approval for our current or future product candidates, we will be unable to market and sell them and therefore we may never be profitable.
As part of the regulatory process, we must conduct clinical trials for each product candidate to demonstrate safety and efficacy to the satisfaction of the FDA and other regulatory authorities abroad. The number and design of clinical trials that will be required varies depending on the product candidate, the condition being evaluated, the trial results and regulations applicable to any particular product candidate.
Prior clinical trial program designs and results are not necessarily predictive of future clinical trial designs or results. Initial results may not be confirmed upon full analysis of the detailed results of a trial. Product candidates in later stage clinical trials may fail to show the desired safety and efficacy despite having progressed through initial clinical trials with acceptable endpoints.
In particular, there have been no control groups in our clinical trials completed to date. While comparisons to results from other reported clinical trials can assist in predicting the potential efficacy of algenpantucel-L, there are many factors that affect the outcome for patients in clinical trials, some of which are not apparent in published reports, and results from two different trials cannot always be reliably compared. As a result, we are studying algenpantucel-L in combination with the current standard-of-care in direct comparison to the current standard-of-care alone in the same trial and will need to show a statistically significant benefit when added to the current standard-of-care in order for algenpantucel-L to be approved as a marketable drug. Patients in our Phase 3 study who do not receive algenpantucel-L may not have results similar to patients studied in the other studies we have

24


used for comparison to our Phase 2 studies. If the patients in our Phase 3 study who receive standard-of-care without algenpantucel-L have results which are better than the results predicted by the other large studies, we may not demonstrate a sufficient benefit from algenpantucel-L to allow or convince the FDA to approve it for marketing.
Our HyperAcute product candidates are based on a novel technology, which may raise development issues we may not be able to resolve, regulatory issues that could delay or prevent approval or personnel issues that may keep us from being able to develop our product candidates.
Our HyperAcute product candidates are based on our novel HyperAcute immunotherapy technology. In the course of developing this technology and these product candidates, we have encountered difficulties in the development process. There can be no assurance that additional development problems, which we may not be able to resolve or which may cause significant delays in development, will not arise in the future.
Regulatory approval of novel product candidates such as ours can be more expensive and take longer than for other, more well-known or extensively studied pharmaceutical or biopharmaceutical products, due to our and regulatory agencies’ lack of experience with them. This may lengthen the regulatory review process, require us to conduct additional studies or clinical trials, including post-approval studies or clinical trials, increase our development costs, lead to changes in regulatory positions and interpretations, delay or prevent approval and commercialization of these product candidates or lead to significant post-approval limitations or restrictions. For example, the two cell lines that comprise algenpantucel-L are novel and complex therapeutics that we have endeavored to better characterize so that their identity, strength, quality, purity and potency may be compared among batches created from different manufacturing methods. We currently lack the manufacturing capacity necessary for larger-scale production. If we make any changes to our current manufacturing methods or cannot design assays that satisfy the FDA’s expectations regarding the equivalency of such therapeutics in the laboratory, the FDA may require us to undertake additional clinical trials.
The novel nature of our product candidates also means that fewer people are trained in or experienced with product candidates of this type, which may make it difficult to find, hire and retain capable personnel for research, development and manufacturing positions.
Our Special Protocol Assessment, or SPA, with the FDA relating to our algenpantucel-L IMPRESS (Immunotherapy for Pancreatic Resectable Cancer Survival Study) Phase 3 clinical trial does not guarantee any particular outcome from regulatory review of the trial or the product candidate, including any regulatory approval.
The protocol for our algenpantucel-L IMPRESS Phase 3 clinical trial was reviewed by the FDA under its SPA process, which allows for FDA evaluation of a clinical trial protocol intended to form the primary basis of an efficacy claim in support of a Biologics License Application, or BLA, and provides an agreement that the study design, including trial size, clinical endpoints and/or data analyses are acceptable to the FDA. However, the SPA agreement is not a guarantee of approval. The FDA retains the right to require additional Phase 3 testing, and we cannot be certain that the design of, or data collected from the IMPRESS Phase 3 clinical trial will be adequate to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of algenpantucel-L for the treatment of patients with pancreatic cancer, or otherwise be sufficient to support FDA or any foreign regulatory approval. In addition, the survival rates, duration of response and safety profile required to support FDA approval are not specified in the IMPRESS Phase 3 clinical trial protocol and will be subject to FDA review. Although the SPA agreement calls for review of interim data at certain times prior to completion, there is no assurance that any such review, even if such interim data are positive, will result in early approval. Further, the SPA agreement is not binding on the FDA if public health concerns unrecognized at the time the SPA agreement was entered into become evident, other new scientific concerns regarding product safety or efficacy arise, or if we fail to comply with the agreed upon trial protocols. In addition, the SPA agreement may be changed by us or the FDA on written agreement of both parties, and the FDA retains significant latitude and discretion in interpreting the terms of the SPA agreement and the data and results from the IMPRESS Phase 3 clinical trial. As a result, we do not know how the FDA will interpret the parties’ respective commitments under the SPA agreement, how it will interpret the data and results from the IMPRESS Phase 3 clinical trial, or whether algenpantucel-L will receive any regulatory approvals as a result of the SPA agreement or the IMPRESS Phase 3 clinical trial. Therefore, significant uncertainty remains regarding the clinical development and regulatory approval process for algenpantucel-L for the treatment of patients with pancreatic cancer.
We may expend our limited resources to pursue a particular product candidate or indication and fail to capitalize on product candidates or indications that may be more profitable or for which there is a greater likelihood of success.
Because we have limited financial and managerial resources, we must focus on research programs and product candidates for the specific indications that we believe are the most scientifically and commercially promising. As a result, we have in the past determined to let certain of our development projects remain idle including by allowing Investigational New Drug applications

25


to lapse into inactive status, and we may in the future decide to forego or delay pursuit of opportunities with other product candidates or other indications that later prove to have greater scientific or commercial potential. We are currently allocating significant resources to the development of an Ebola vaccine product candidate, and these efforts may ultimately prove unsuccessful or unprofitable, and may divert our resources from the development and commercialization of our other product candidates. Our resource allocation decisions may cause us to fail to capitalize on viable scientific or commercial products or profitable market opportunities. In addition, we may spend valuable time and managerial and financial resources on research programs and product candidates for specific indications that ultimately do not yield any scientifically or commercially viable products. Furthermore, our resource allocation decisions, and our decisions about whether and how to develop or commercialize any particular product candidate may be based on evaluations of the scientific and commercial potential or target market for the product candidate that later prove to be materially inaccurate. If we enter into collaborations, licensing or other royalty arrangements to develop or commercialize a particular product candidate, we may relinquish valuable rights to that product candidate in situations where it would have been more advantageous for us to retain sole rights to development and commercialization.
We may face delays in completing our clinical trials, or we may not be able to complete them at all.
We have not completed all the clinical trials necessary to support an application with the FDA for approval to market any of our product candidates. Our current and future clinical trials may be delayed or terminated as a result of many factors, including:
we may experience delays or failure in reaching agreement on acceptable clinical trial contracts or clinical trial protocols with prospective sites;
regulators or institutional review boards may not authorize us to commence a clinical trial;
regulators or institutional review boards may suspend or terminate clinical research for various reasons, including noncompliance with regulatory requirements or concerns about patient safety;
we may suspend or terminate our clinical trials if we believe that they expose the participating patients to unacceptable health risks;
our clinical trials may have slower than expected patient enrollment or lack of a sufficient number of patients that meet their enrollment criteria;
patients may not complete clinical trials due to safety issues, side effects, dissatisfaction with the product candidate, or other reasons;
we may experience difficulty in maintaining contact with patients after treatment, preventing us from collecting the data required by our study protocol;
product candidates may demonstrate a lack of efficacy during clinical trials;
we may experience governmental or regulatory delays, failure to obtain regulatory approval or changes in regulatory requirements, policy and guidelines;
enrollment in and conduct of our clinical trials may be adversely affected by competition with ongoing clinical trials and scheduling conflicts with participating clinicians; and
we may experience delays in achieving study endpoints and completing data analysis for a trial.
In addition, we rely on academic institutions, physician practices and clinical research organizations to conduct, supervise or monitor some or all aspects of clinical trials involving our product candidates. We have less control over the timing and other aspects of these clinical trials than if we conducted the monitoring and supervision entirely on our own. Third parties may not perform their responsibilities for our clinical trials on our anticipated schedule or consistent with a clinical trial protocol or applicable regulations. We also may rely on clinical research organizations to perform our data management and analysis. They may not provide these services as required or in a timely or compliant manner.
Moreover, our development costs will increase if we are required to complete additional or larger clinical trials for the HyperAcute product candidates, indoximod, other IDO pathway inhibitor product candidates such as NLG919, or our Ebola vaccine product candidate prior to FDA approval. If the delays or costs are significant, our financial results and ability to commercialize the HyperAcute product candidates, indoximod, NLG919, or our Ebola vaccine product candidate, or other future product candidates will be adversely affected.
If we encounter difficulties enrolling patients in our clinical trials, our clinical trials could be delayed or otherwise adversely affected.
Clinical trials for our product candidates require us to identify and enroll a large number of patients with the disease under investigation, or, in the case of our Ebola vaccine product candidate, healthy volunteers willing to participate in the trials. We may not be able to enroll a sufficient number of patients, or those with required or desired characteristics to achieve diversity in a study, to complete our clinical trials in a timely manner. Patient enrollment is affected by factors including:
severity of the disease under investigation;

26


design of the trial protocol;
the size of the patient population;
eligibility criteria for the study in question;
perceived risks and benefits of the product candidate under study;
in the case of Ebola vaccine product candidate trials, changes in media coverage of the current Ebola epidemic;
availability of competing therapies and clinical trials;
efforts to facilitate timely enrollment in clinical trials;
patient referral practices of physicians;
the ability to monitor patients adequately during and after treatment; and
proximity and availability of clinical trial sites for prospective patients.
We have experienced difficulties enrolling patients in certain of our smaller clinical trials due to lack of referrals and may experience similar difficulties in the future. We may experience difficulty enrolling healthy volunteers in our current or any future clinical trials for our Ebola vaccine product candidate due to the perceived risks of receiving the Ebola vaccine product candidate, a decrease or increase in public attention on Ebola or other factors. If we have difficulty enrolling a sufficient number or diversity of patients to conduct our clinical trials as planned, we may need to delay or terminate ongoing or planned clinical trials, either of which would have an adverse effect on our business.
In addition, the inclusion of critically ill patients in our clinical trials may result in deaths or other adverse medical events for reasons that may not be related to the product candidate we are testing or, in those trials where our product candidate is being tested in combination with one or more other therapies, for reasons that may be attributable to such other therapies, but which can nevertheless negatively affect clinical trial results.
Regulatory authorities may not approve our product candidates even if they meet safety and efficacy endpoints in clinical trials.
We have discussions with and obtain guidance from regulatory authorities regarding certain aspects of our clinical development activities. These discussions are not binding commitments on the part of regulatory authorities. Under certain circumstances, regulatory authorities may revise or retract previous guidance during the course of our clinical activities or after the completion of our clinical trials. A regulatory authority may also disqualify a clinical trial in whole or in part from consideration in support of approval of a potential product for commercial sale or otherwise deny approval of that product. Prior to regulatory approval, a regulatory authority may elect to obtain advice from outside experts regarding scientific issues and/or marketing applications under a regulatory authority review. In the United States, these outside experts are convened through the FDA’s Advisory Committee process, which would report to the FDA and make recommendations that may differ from the views of the FDA. Should an Advisory Committee be convened, it would be expected to lengthen the time for obtaining regulatory approval, if such approval is obtained at all.
The FDA and other foreign regulatory agencies can delay, limit or deny marketing approval for many reasons, including:
a product candidate may not be considered safe or effective;
our manufacturing processes or facilities may not meet the applicable requirements; and
changes in their approval policies or adoption of new regulations may require additional work on our part.
Any delay in, or failure to receive or maintain, approval for any of our product candidates could prevent us from ever generating meaningful revenues or achieving profitability.
Our product candidates may not be approved even if they achieve their endpoints in clinical trials. Regulatory agencies, including the FDA, or their advisors may disagree with our trial design and our interpretations of data from preclinical studies and clinical trials. Regulatory agencies may change requirements for approval even after a clinical trial design has been approved. Regulatory agencies also may approve a product candidate for fewer or more limited indications than requested or may grant approval subject to the performance of post-marketing studies. In addition, regulatory agencies may not approve the labeling claims that are necessary or desirable for the successful commercialization of our product candidates.
Our Ebola vaccine product candidate is a live virus vaccine based upon vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). There are no commercial vaccines based upon this virus, so the time and cost of product development and the timeframe for regulatory approval, if any, are uncertain and may be longer and more costly than we estimate.
Unforeseen problems related to the use of our live virus vaccine may prevent further development or approval of our Ebola vaccine product candidate. There may be unknown safety risks associated with the vaccine and regulatory agencies such as the FDA may require us to conduct extensive safety testing prior to approval to demonstrate a low risk of rare and severe adverse

27


events caused by the vaccine. If approved, unfamiliarity with the viral vaccine and potential adverse events associated with vaccination may adversely affect physician and patient perception and uptake of our product.
Our research and development efforts on our Ebola vaccine product candidate use live virus vaccine technology, and our successful development and commercialization of our Ebola vaccine product candidate depends on the costs and timing of development, including costs and timeframes for regulatory approval. There can be no assurance that any development problems we or others researching this virus vaccine may experience in the future will not cause significant delays or unanticipated costs, or that such development problems can be solved.
Public perception of vaccine safety issues, including adoption of novel vaccines based upon VSV, may adversely influence willingness of subjects to participate in clinical trials, or if approved, of physicians to prescribe, and of patients to receive, novel vaccines. For example, our Ebola vaccine product candidate is currently being developed for prevention of, and may later be developed for treatment of patients infected with, Ebola, and public aversion to vaccines for Ebola or vaccines in general may adversely influence later stage clinical trials of this product candidate or, if approved, its commercial success. Furthermore, there are no assurances that the vaccine will be approved for inclusion in government stockpile programs, which may be material to the commercial success of the product candidate, either in the United States or abroad.
We may be required to suspend, repeat or terminate our clinical trials if they are not conducted in accordance with regulatory requirements, the results are negative or inconclusive or the trials are not well designed.
Clinical trials must be conducted in accordance with the FDA’s current Good Clinical Practices, or cGCP, or other applicable foreign government guidelines and are subject to oversight by the FDA, other foreign governmental agencies and Institutional Review Boards at the medical institutions where the clinical trials are conducted. In addition, clinical trials must be conducted with product candidates produced under current Good Manufacturing Practices, or cGMP, and may require large numbers of test subjects. Clinical trials may be suspended by the FDA, other foreign governmental agencies, or us for various reasons, including:
deficiencies in the conduct of the clinical trials, including failure to conduct the clinical trial in accordance with regulatory requirements or clinical protocols;
deficiencies in the clinical trial operations or trial sites;
the product candidate may have unforeseen adverse side effects;
the time required to determine whether the product candidate is effective may be longer than expected;
fatalities or other adverse events arising during a clinical trial due to medical problems that may not be related to clinical trial treatments;
the product candidate may not appear to be more effective than current therapies;
the quality or stability of the product candidate may fall below acceptable standards; or
insufficient quantities of the product candidate to complete the trials.
In addition, changes in regulatory requirements and guidance may occur and we may need to amend clinical trial protocols to reflect these changes. Amendments may require us to resubmit our clinical trial protocols to Institutional Review Boards for reexamination, which may impact the costs, timing or successful completion of a clinical trial. Due to these and other factors, our HyperAcute product candidates, indoximod, NLG919 and other product candidates could take a significantly longer time to gain regulatory approval for any additional indications than we expect or we may never gain approval for additional indications, which could reduce our revenue by delaying or terminating the commercialization of our HyperAcute product candidates, indoximod, NLG919 and other product candidates for additional indications.
Some of our product candidates have been or in the future may be studied in clinical trials co-sponsored by the National Cancer Institute, or NCI, or in investigator-initiated clinical trials, which means we have little control over the conduct of such trials.
Our indoximod product candidate has been studied in two Phase 1B/2 clinical trials co-sponsored by the National Cancer Institute. We are currently supplying our indoximod product candidate in support of a Phase 2 investigator-initiated clinical trial, and we provided clinical supply of our dorgenmeltucel-L (HyperAcute Melanoma) product candidate in support of a Phase 2 investigator-initiated clinical trial. We may continue to supply and otherwise support similar trials in the future. However, because we are not the sponsors of these trials, we do not control the protocols, administration or conduct of these trials, including follow-up with patients and ongoing collection of data after treatment, and, as a result, are subject to risks associated with the way these types of trials are conducted, in particular should any problems arise. These risks include difficulties or delays in communicating with investigators or administrators, procedural delays and other timing issues and difficulties or differences in interpreting data.

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If we cannot demonstrate the safety of our product candidates in preclinical and/or other non-clinical studies, we will not be able to initiate or continue clinical trials or obtain approval for our product candidates.
In order to move a product candidate not yet being tested in humans into a clinical trial, we must first demonstrate in preclinical testing that the product candidate is safe. Furthermore, in order to obtain approval, we must also demonstrate safety in various preclinical and non-clinical tests. We may not have conducted or may not conduct in the future the types of preclinical and other non-clinical testing ultimately required by regulatory authorities, or future preclinical tests may indicate that our product candidates are not safe for use in humans. Preclinical testing is expensive, can take many years and have an uncertain outcome. In addition, success in initial preclinical testing does not ensure that later preclinical testing will be successful. We may experience numerous unforeseen events during, or as a result of, the preclinical testing process, which could delay or prevent our ability to develop or commercialize our product candidates, including:
our preclinical testing may produce inconclusive or negative safety results, which may require us to conduct additional preclinical testing or to abandon product candidates that we believed to be promising;
our product candidates may have unfavorable pharmacology, toxicology or carcinogenicity;
our product candidates may cause undesirable side effects; and
the FDA or other regulatory authorities may determine that additional safety testing is required.
Any such events would increase our costs and could delay or prevent our ability to commercialize our product candidates, which could adversely impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Even if approved, the HyperAcute product candidates, indoximod, NLG919, our Ebola vaccine product candidate or any other product we may commercialize and market may be later withdrawn from the market or subject to promotional limitations.
We may not be able to obtain the labeling claims necessary or desirable for the promotion of our products. We may also be required to undertake post-marketing clinical trials. If the results of such post-marketing studies are not satisfactory, the FDA or a comparable agency in a foreign country may withdraw marketing authorization or may condition continued marketing on commitments from us that may be expensive and/or time consuming to fulfill. In addition, if we or others identify adverse side effects after any of our products are on the market, or if manufacturing problems occur, regulatory approval may be withdrawn and reformulation of our products, additional clinical trials, changes in labeling of our products and additional marketing applications may be required. Any reformulation or labeling changes may limit the marketability of our products.
We will need to develop or acquire additional capabilities in order to commercialize any product candidates that obtain FDA approval, and we may encounter unexpected costs or difficulties in doing so .
We will need to acquire additional capabilities and effectively manage our operations and facilities to successfully pursue and complete future research, development and commercialization efforts. Currently, we have no experience in preparing applications for marketing approval, commercial-scale manufacturing, managing of large-scale information technology systems or managing a large-scale distribution system. We will need to add personnel and expand our capabilities, which may strain our existing managerial, operational, regulatory compliance, financial and other resources.
To do this effectively, we must:
train, manage and motivate a growing employee base;
accurately forecast demand for our products; and
expand existing operational, financial and management information systems.
We plan to increase our manufacturing capacity, which may include negotiating and entering into arrangements for third-party contract manufacturing for some or all of our commercial manufacturing requirements, and seek FDA approval for our production process simultaneously with seeking approval for the marketing and sale of our algenpantucel-L. Should we not receive timely approval of our production process, our ability to produce the immunotherapy products following regulatory approval for sale could be delayed, which would further delay the period of time when we would be able to generate revenues from the sale of such products, if we are even able to generate revenues at all.
If we are unable to establish sales and marketing capabilities or enter into agreements with third parties to market and sell our product candidates, we may be unable to generate significant product revenue.
We do not have a sales organization and have no experience in the sales and distribution of pharmaceutical products. There are risks involved with establishing our own sales capabilities and increasing our marketing capabilities, as well as entering

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into arrangements with third parties to perform these services. Developing an internal sales force is expensive and time consuming and could delay any product launch. On the other hand, if we enter into arrangements with third parties to perform sales, marketing and distribution services, our product revenues or the profitability of these product revenues to us could potentially be lower than if we market and sell any products that we develop ourselves.
We entered into the Genentech Agreement in October 2014 for the sales, marketing and distribution of NLG919. If NLG919 is approved by regulators for marketing and sale, Genentech may be unsuccessful in its efforts to commercialize NLG919 or may devote fewer resources to such efforts than we would consider optimal.
We may establish our own specialty sales force and/or engage other biopharmaceutical or other healthcare companies with established sales, marketing and distribution capabilities to sell, market and distribute any future products. We may not be able to establish a specialty sales force or establish sales, marketing or distribution relationships on acceptable terms. Factors that may inhibit our efforts to commercialize any future products without strategic collaborators or licensees include:
our inability to recruit and retain adequate numbers of effective sales and marketing personnel;
the inability of sales personnel to obtain access to or persuade adequate numbers of physicians to prescribe any future products;
the lack of complementary products to be offered by sales personnel, which may put us at a competitive disadvantage relative to companies with more extensive product lines; and
unforeseen costs and expenses associated with creating an independent sales and marketing organization.
Because the establishment of sales, marketing and distribution capabilities depends on the progress towards commercialization of our product candidates, and because of the numerous risks and uncertainties involved with establishing those capabilities, we are unable to predict when, if ever, we will establish our own sales, marketing and distribution capabilities. If we are not able to collaborate with third parties and are unsuccessful in recruiting sales, marketing and distribution personnel or in building the necessary infrastructure, we will have difficulty commercializing our product candidates, which would adversely affect our business and financial condition.
Failure to attract and retain key personnel could impede our ability to develop our products and to obtain new collaborations or other sources of funding.
Because of the specialized scientific nature of our business, our success is highly dependent upon our ability to attract and retain qualified scientific and technical personnel, consultants and advisors. We are highly dependent on the principal members of our scientific and management staff, particularly Dr. Charles J. Link, Jr. and Dr. Nicholas N. Vahanian. The loss of either of their services might significantly delay or prevent the achievement of our research, development, and business objectives. We do not maintain key-man life insurance with respect to any of our employees, nor do we intend to secure such insurance.
We will need to recruit a significant number of additional personnel in order to achieve our operating goals. In order to pursue product development and marketing and sales activities, if any, we will need to hire additional qualified scientific personnel to perform research and development, as well as personnel with expertise in clinical testing, government regulation, manufacturing, marketing and sales. We also rely on consultants and advisors to assist in formulating our research and development strategy and adhering to complex regulatory requirements. Our personnel needs will be further exacerbated as a result of our entering into the Genentech Agreement and our efforts to develop our Ebola vaccine product candidate. We face competition for qualified individuals from numerous pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies, universities and other research institutions. There can be no assurance that we will be able to attract and retain such individuals on acceptable terms, if at all. If the personnel that have contingently agreed to join us do not join us it will be difficult or impossible for us to execute our business plan in a timely manner. Additionally, our most significant facilities are located in Iowa, which may make attracting and retaining qualified scientific and technical personnel from outside of Iowa difficult. The failure to attract and retain qualified personnel, consultants and advisors could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Risks Relating to Manufacturing Activities
We have never manufactured our product candidates at commercial scale, and there can be no assurance that such products can be manufactured in compliance with regulations at a cost or in quantities necessary to make them commercially viable.
We have no experience in commercial-scale manufacturing, the management of large-scale information technology systems or the management of a large-scale distribution system. In June 2014, we entered into the WuXi Agreement, under which we granted WuXi a non-exclusive right to use certain of our starting materials and confidential information for the commercial manufacturing of cell material for the production of algenpantucel-L. We will incur significant expense under the WuXi Agreement,

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and our commercial relationship with WuXi may not result in the manufacture of algenpantucel-L to the required quality standards or in quantities or at a cost that allows any future commercial sales to be profitable or commercially viable for many reasons, including the following:

the FDA may not approve the facilities used by, or the manufacturing processes developed by, WuXi, or the FDA may impose additional requirements that result in unforeseen expense or delay;
we have no experience managing relationships with commercial manufacturing organizations, and we may make decisions in connection with our relationship with WuXi that result in unforeseen delays, expenses or other difficulties, or that later prove to be less advantageous than other decisions we could have made;
we or WuXi may encounter unforeseen difficulties in attempting to manufacture biological materials related to algenpantucel-L at a larger scale than we have previously attempted;
WuXi may not be able to devote sufficient resources or facilities to manufacture cell materials in the quantities we may require;
the manufacturing processes may produce low or variable quality or quantities of manufactured cell materials, and we may expend considerable resources attempting to identify or remedy factors causing such problems, or we may not be able to identify or remedy such factors;
WuXi is currently our sole contract manufacturer for cell materials, and any unforeseen difficulties or work slow down or stoppage resulting from economic, labor, governmental, political or environmental factors, among others, may result in increased costs or delay, or a reduction or elimination of WuXi’s ability to manufacture cell material for algenpantucel-L; and
the FDA may not approve algenpantucel-L for the treatment of patients with pancreatic cancer, or any subset of such patients, which would not relieve our obligation for certain costs under the WuXi Agreement.

We may develop additional or alternative manufacturing capacity by expanding our current facilities, by entering into additional third-party contract manufacturing arrangements, or by some combination of the foregoing. Expanding our current facilities would require substantial additional funds and we would need to hire and train significant numbers of qualified employees to staff these facilities. We may not be able to develop commercial-scale manufacturing facilities that are sufficient to produce materials for additional later-stage clinical trials or commercial use. Contracting for additional third-party commercial manufacturing would require expertise and qualified personnel to manage the added complexity of such additional relationships and regulatory compliance at multiple manufacturing sites operated by different third-parties and may further increase our expenses related to, and decrease our direct control over, procuring a sufficient supply of our product candidates for commercial sale.
If we are unable to manufacture or contract for a sufficient supply of our product candidates on acceptable terms, or if we encounter delays or difficulties in the scale-up of our manufacturing processes or our relationships with WuXi or other manufacturers, our preclinical and human clinical testing schedule would be delayed. This in turn would delay the submission of product candidates for regulatory approval and thereby delay the market introduction and subsequent sales of any products that receive regulatory approval, which would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, if any of our product candidates are approved for sale, our inability to manufacture or contract for a sufficient supply of such potential future products on acceptable terms would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Furthermore, we or our contract manufacturers must supply all necessary documentation in support of each BLA and each New Drug Application, or NDA, on a timely basis and must adhere to Good Laboratory Practice, or GLP and cGMP regulations enforced by the FDA through its facilities inspection program. If these facilities cannot pass a pre-approval plant inspection, the FDA approval of the products will not be granted.
We and our contract manufacturers are subject to significant regulation with respect to manufacturing of our products.
All entities involved in the preparation of a therapeutic drug for clinical trials or commercial sale, including WuXi, our existing contract manufacturer for indoximod and the components used in the HyperAcute product candidates, our contract manufacturer for NLG919, our contract manufacturers for our Ebola vaccine product candidate, Genentech in its capacity as our licensee, and any contract manufacturer that we may use in the future for manufacturing related to clinical trials or commercial sale are subject to extensive regulation. Components of a finished therapeutic product approved for commercial sale or used in late-stage clinical trials must be manufactured in accordance with cGMP. These regulations govern manufacturing processes and procedures (including record keeping) and the implementation and operation of quality systems to control and assure the quality of investigational products and products approved for sale. Our facilities and quality systems and the facilities and quality systems of some or all of our third party contractors must pass a pre-approval inspection for compliance with the applicable regulations as a condition of regulatory approval of the HyperAcute product candidates, indoximod, NLG919, our Ebola vaccine product candidate or any of our other potential products. In addition, the regulatory authorities may, at any time, audit or inspect a manufacturing facility involved with the preparation of the HyperAcute product candidates, indoximod, NLG919, our Ebola vaccine product candidate or our other potential products or the associated quality systems for compliance with the regulations applicable to the activities being conducted. The regulatory authorities also may, at any time following approval of a product for

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sale, audit our manufacturing facilities or those of our third party contractors. If any such inspection or audit identifies a failure to comply with applicable regulations or if a violation of our product specifications or applicable regulations occurs independent of such an inspection or audit, we or the relevant regulatory authority may require remedial measures that may be costly and/or time consuming for us or a third party to implement and that may include the temporary or permanent suspension of a clinical trial or commercial sales or the temporary or permanent closure of a facility. Any such remedial measures imposed upon us or third parties with whom we contract could materially harm our business. In addition, to the extent that we rely on foreign contract manufacturers, as we do currently for NLG919 and our Ebola vaccine product candidate, we are or will be subject to additional risks including the need to comply with export and import regulations.
We have entered into agreements for the manufacture and clinical development of our Ebola vaccine product candidate that have contractual obligations in excess of our current funding for our Ebola vaccine product candidate development efforts.
We have entered into commercial manufacturing and clinical trial management agreements for our Ebola vaccine product candidate that obligate us to approximately $8.4 million in direct payments to the manufacturers.  We entered into these agreements based on our belief that we may obtain additional funding for our current Ebola vaccine development efforts.  We have received commitments for funding totaling $2.9 million for Ebola vaccine development, including for manufacturing of the Ebola vaccine product candidate. In addition, we are likely to incur additional operating expenses performing our obligations under these contracts, in addition to our other costs of administering our Phase 1 Ebola vaccine product candidate clinical trial.  Our failure to obtain additional grant or other funding for our Ebola vaccine development efforts will not relieve us of our obligations under our contract manufacturing agreements for the Ebola vaccine product candidate.
We currently rely on relationships with third-party contract manufacturers, which limits our ability to control the availability of, and manufacturing costs for, our product candidates in the near-term. The loss of any of these manufacturers, some of which are our only current source for components of our product candidates, or delays or problems in the supply or manufacture of components of our product candidates, could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We intend to rely on contract manufacturers or strategic partners for indoximod, NLG919, our Ebola vaccine product candidate and for components of or finished HyperAcute product candidates, including algenpantucel-L, for commercial sale if any are approved for sale. In addition, we currently rely on contract manufacturers for supply of NLG919 and our Ebola vaccine product candidate for preclinical and clinical studies. Problems with any of our facilities or processes, or our contract manufacturers’ facilities or processes, could prevent or delay the production of adequate supplies of antigen, components of or finished HyperAcute product candidates, indoximod, NLG919 or our Ebola vaccine product candidate. This could delay or reduce commercial sales and materially harm our business. We do not currently have experience with the manufacture of products at commercial scale, or the management of relationships related to commercial-scale contract manufacturing, and we may incur substantial costs to develop the capability to manufacture products at commercial scale or to negotiate and enter into relationships with third-party contract manufacturers. Any prolonged delay or interruption in the operations of our facilities or our current or future contract manufacturers’ facilities could result in cancellation of shipments, loss of components in the process of being manufactured or a shortfall in availability of a product. A number of factors could cause interruptions, including the inability of a supplier to provide raw materials, equipment malfunctions or failures, damage to a facility due to natural disasters, changes in international or U.S. regulatory requirements or standards that require modifications to our manufacturing processes, action by regulatory authorities or by us that results in the halting or slowdown of production of components or finished product due to regulatory issues, a contract manufacturer going out of business or failing to produce product as contractually required or other similar factors. Because manufacturing processes are highly complex and are subject to a lengthy regulatory approval process, alternative qualified production capacity and sufficiently trained or qualified personnel may not be available on a timely or cost-effective basis or at all. Difficulties or delays in our contract manufacturers’ production of drug substances could delay our clinical trials, increase our costs, damage our reputation and cause us to lose revenue and market share if we are unable to timely meet market demand for any products that are approved for sale.
Further, if our current or future contract manufacturers are not in compliance with regulatory requirements at any stage, including post-marketing approval, we may be fined, forced to remove a product from the market and/or experience other adverse consequences, including delays, which could materially harm our business.
We replicate all biological cells for clinical trials of our product candidates internally and utilize a single manufacturing site to manufacture our clinical product candidates other than our Ebola vaccine product candidate. Any disruption in the operations of our manufacturing facility would have a significant negative impact on our ability to manufacture product candidates for clinical testing and would result in increased costs and losses.

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We have thus far elected to replicate all biological cells for our product candidates other than our Ebola vaccine product candidate for clinical testing internally using a complex process. The disruption of our operations could result in manufacturing delays due to the inability to purchase the cell lines from outside sources. We have only one manufacturing facility in which we can manufacture clinical product candidates. In the event of a physical catastrophe at our manufacturing or laboratory facilities, we could experience costly delays in reestablishing manufacturing capacity, due to a lack of redundancy in manufacturing capability.
Our current manufacturing facility contains highly specialized equipment and utilizes complicated production processes developed over a number of years, which would be difficult, time-consuming and costly to duplicate or may be impossible to duplicate. Any prolonged disruption in the operations of our manufacturing facility would have a significant negative impact on our ability to manufacture product candidates for clinical testing on our own and would cause us to seek additional third-party manufacturing contracts, thereby increasing our development costs. We may suffer losses as a result of business interruptions that exceed the coverage available under our insurance policies or any losses may be excluded under our insurance policies. Certain events, such as natural disasters, fire, political disturbances, sabotage or business accidents, which could impact our current or future facilities, could have a significant negative impact on our operations by disrupting our product development efforts until such time as we are able to repair our facility or put in place third-party contract manufacturers to assume this manufacturing role.
We have experienced bacterial and mycoplasm contaminations in lots produced at our facilities, and we destroyed the contaminated lots and certain overlapping lots. We may experience additional contaminated lots at our facilities, and we will destroy any contaminated lots that we detect, which could result in significant delay or additional expense in our operations.
We rely on a single manufacturer for a key component used in the manufacture of our HyperAcute immunotherapy product candidates, which could impair our ability to manufacture and supply our products.
The manufacturing process for our HyperAcute immunotherapy product candidates has one component that we obtain from a single manufacturer. If our current supplier is unable to continue supplying the component for our clinical trials,or to supply the component at quantities insufficient for commercial sale, we may need to utilize an alternative manufacturer. If we utilize an alternative manufacturer, we may be required to demonstrate comparability of the drug product before releasing the product for clinical use. The loss of our current supplier could result in manufacturing delays for the component substitution, and we may need to accept changes in terms or price from our existing supplier in order to avoid such delays.

Our facilities are located in areas where floods and tornados are known to occur, and the occurrence of a flood, tornado or other catastrophic disaster could damage our facilities and equipment, which could cause us to curtail or cease operations.
Our primary facilities are located in Ames, Iowa, which is susceptible to floods and tornados, and our facilities are therefore vulnerable to damage or disruption from floods and tornados. We are also vulnerable to damage from other types of disasters, such as power loss, fire and similar events. If any disaster were to occur, our ability to operate our business could be seriously impaired. We currently carry business personal property insurance in the amount of $9.5 million in the aggregate, but this policy does not cover disasters such as floods and earthquakes. We may not have adequate insurance to cover our losses resulting from disasters or other similar significant business interruptions, and we do not plan to purchase additional insurance to cover such losses due to the cost of obtaining such coverage. Any significant losses that are not recoverable under our insurance policies could seriously impair our business and financial condition.
Significant disruptions of information technology systems or breaches of data security could adversely affect our business.

We are increasingly dependent on information technology systems and infrastructure, including mobile technologies, to operate our business. In the ordinary course of our business, we collect, store and transmit large amounts of confidential information, including intellectual property, proprietary business information and personal information. It is critical that we do so in a secure manner to maintain the confidentiality and integrity of such confidential information. We have also outsourced elements of our information technology infrastructure, and as a result we manage a number of third party vendors who may or could have access to our confidential information. The size and complexity of our information technology systems, and those of third-party vendors with whom we contract, make such systems potentially vulnerable to breakdown, malicious intrusion, security breaches and other cyber attacks. In addition, the prevalent use of mobile devices that access confidential information increases the risk of data security breaches, which could lead to the loss of confidential information, trade secrets or other intellectual property. While we have implemented security measures to protect our data security and information technology systems, such measures may not prevent the adverse effect of such events. Significant disruptions of our information technology systems or breaches of data security could adversely affect our business.


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Risks Relating to Regulation of Our Industry
The industry within which we operate and our business are subject to extensive regulation, which is costly and time consuming and which may subject us to unanticipated delays.
The research, design, testing, manufacturing, labeling, marketing, distribution and advertising of biologic and pharmaceutical products such as our product candidates are subject to extensive regulation by governmental regulatory authorities in the United States and other countries. The drug development and approval process is generally lengthy, expensive and subject to unanticipated delays. Data obtained from preclinical and clinical testing are subject to varying interpretations that could delay, limit or prevent regulatory approval. In addition, delays or rejections may be encountered based upon changes in regulatory policy for product approval during the period of development and regulatory review of each submitted application for approval. To obtain approval for a product candidate, we must demonstrate to the satisfaction of the regulatory authorities that the product candidate is safe, pure, potent and effective, which typically takes several years or more depending upon the type, complexity and novelty of the product and requires the expenditure of substantial resources. There can be no assurance that we will not encounter problems in clinical trials that would cause us or the regulatory authorities to delay or suspend clinical trials. Any such delay or suspension could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
There can be no assurance that clinical studies for any of our product candidates currently under development will be completed successfully or within any specified time period, if at all. Further, there can also be no assurance that such testing will show any product to be safe, pure, potent or effective. There can be no assurance that we will not encounter problems in clinical trials that will cause us to delay or suspend clinical trials.
Regardless of how much time and resources we devote to development of a product candidate, there can be no assurance that regulatory approval will be obtained for that product candidate. To date, the FDA has approved only one active cellular cancer immunotherapy product, even though several have been, and currently are in, clinical development. Further, even if such regulatory approval is obtained, we, our products and any contract manufacturers or commercial collaborators of ours will be subject to continual regulatory review in both the United States and other countries. Later discovery of previously unknown problems with regard to a product, distributor or manufacturer may result in restrictions, including withdrawal of the product from the market and/or disqualification or decertification of the distributor or manufacturer.
We cannot predict when, if ever, we might submit for regulatory review our product candidates currently under development. Once we submit our potential products for review, there can be no assurance that regulatory approvals for any pharmaceutical products developed by us will be granted on a timely basis, if at all.
The FDA and comparable agencies in foreign countries impose substantial requirements on the introduction of new biologic and pharmaceutical products through lengthy and detailed preclinical and clinical testing procedures, sampling activities and other costly and time-consuming compliance procedures. Clinical trials are vigorously regulated and must meet requirements for FDA review and oversight and requirements under GCP guidelines. A new drug may not be marketed in the United States until the FDA has approved it. There can be no assurance that we will not encounter delays or rejections or that the FDA will not make policy changes during the period of product development and FDA regulatory review of each submitted BLA and NDA. A delay in obtaining or failure to obtain such approvals would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Even if regulatory approval were obtained, it would be limited as to the indicated uses for which the product may be promoted or marketed. A marketed product, its manufacturer and the facilities in which it is manufactured are subject to continual review and periodic inspections. If marketing approval is granted, we would be required to comply with FDA requirements for manufacturing, labeling, advertising, record-keeping and reporting of adverse experiences and other information. In addition, we would be required to comply with federal and state anti-kickback and other health care fraud and abuse laws that pertain to the marketing of pharmaceuticals. Failure to comply with regulatory requirements and other factors could subject us to regulatory or judicial enforcement actions, including product recalls or seizures, injunctions, withdrawal of the product from the market, civil penalties, criminal prosecution, refusals to approve new products and withdrawals of existing approvals, as well as enhanced product liability exposure, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Sales of our products outside the United States will be subject to foreign regulatory requirements governing clinical trials, marketing approval, manufacturing and pricing. Non-compliance with these requirements could result in enforcement actions or penalties or could delay introduction of our products in certain countries.
The requirements governing the conduct of clinical trials, product licensing, pricing and reimbursement outside the United States vary greatly from country to country. The time required to obtain approvals outside the United States may differ from that required to obtain FDA approval. We may not obtain foreign regulatory approvals on a timely basis, or at all. Approval by the FDA does not ensure approval by regulatory authorities in other countries, and approval by one foreign regulatory authority does not ensure approval by regulatory authorities in other countries or by the FDA and foreign regulatory authorities could require

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additional testing. Failure to comply with these regulatory requirements or obtain required approvals could impair our ability to develop foreign markets for our products and may have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.
We are also subject to laws generally applicable to businesses, including but not limited to, federal, state and local regulations relating to wage and hour matters, employee classification, mandatory healthcare benefits, unlawful workplace discrimination and whistle-blowing. Any actual or alleged failure to comply with any regulation applicable to our business or any whistle-blowing claim, even if without merit, could result in costly litigation, regulatory action or otherwise harm our business, results of operations, financial condition, cash flow and future prospects.
The availability and amount of reimbursement for our product candidates, if approved, and the manner in which government and private payors may reimburse for our potential product, are uncertain.
In both United States and foreign markets, sales of our proposed products will depend in part on the availability of reimbursement from third-party payors such as government health administration authorities, private health insurers and other organizations. Our future levels of revenues and profitability may be affected by the continuing efforts of governmental and third party payors to contain or reduce the costs of health care. We cannot predict the effect that private sector or governmental health care reforms may have on our business, and there can be no assurance that any such reforms will not have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
In addition, in both the United States and elsewhere, sales of prescription drugs are dependent in part on the availability of reimbursement to the consumer from third-party payors, such as government and private insurance plans. Third-party payors are increasingly challenging the price and cost-effectiveness of medical products and services. Significant uncertainty exists as to the reimbursement status of newly approved health care products. There can be no assurance that our proposed products will be considered cost-effective or that adequate third-party reimbursement will be available to enable us to maintain price levels sufficient to realize an appropriate return on our investment in product development. Legislation and regulations affecting the pricing of pharmaceuticals may change before any of our proposed products are approved for marketing. Adoption of such legislation could further limit reimbursement for medical products and services. As a result, we may elect not to market future products in certain markets.
Moreover, while we are in clinical trials, we will not be reimbursed for any of our materials used during the clinical trials.
The biopharmaceutical industry is subject to significant regulation and oversight in the United States, in addition to approval of products for sale and marketing.
In addition to FDA restrictions on marketing of biopharmaceutical products, several other types of state and federal laws have been applied to restrict certain marketing practices in the biopharmaceutical industry in recent years. These laws include anti-kickback statutes and false claims statutes.
The federal health care program anti-kickback statute prohibits, among other things, knowingly and willfully offering, paying, soliciting, or receiving remuneration to induce or in return for purchasing, leasing, ordering, or arranging for the purchase, lease, or order of any health care item or service reimbursable under Medicare, Medicaid, or other federally financed healthcare programs. This statute has been interpreted to apply to arrangements between pharmaceutical manufacturers on one hand and prescribers, purchasers and formulary managers on the other. Although there are a number of statutory exemptions and regulatory safe harbors protecting certain common activities from prosecution, the exemptions and safe harbors are drawn narrowly, and practices that involve remuneration intended to induce prescribing, purchases or recommendations may be subject to scrutiny if they do not qualify for an exemption or safe harbor. Our practices may not in all cases meet all of the criteria for safe harbor protection from anti-kickback liability.
Federal false claims laws prohibit any person from knowingly presenting, or causing to be presented, a false claim for payment to the federal government, or knowingly making, or causing to be made, a false statement to get a false claim paid. Recently, several pharmaceutical and other health care companies have been prosecuted under these laws for allegedly providing free product to customers with the expectation that the customers would bill federal programs for the product. Other companies have been prosecuted for causing false claims to be submitted because of marketing of the product for unapproved, and thus non-reimbursable, uses. The majority of states also have statutes or regulations similar to the federal anti-kickback law and false claims laws, which apply to items and services reimbursed under Medicaid and other state programs, or, in several states, apply regardless of the payor. Sanctions under these federal and state laws may include civil monetary penalties, exclusion of a manufacturer’s products from reimbursement under government programs, criminal fines and imprisonment.

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Because of the breadth of these laws and the narrowness of the safe harbors, it is possible that some of our business activities could be subject to challenge under one or more of these laws, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
In the United States and foreign jurisdictions, there have been a number of legislative and regulatory changes to the healthcare system that could affect our future results of operations. We expect to face pricing pressure globally from managed care organizations, institutions and government agencies and programs, which could negatively affect the sales and profit margins for our HyperAcute product candidates, indoximod, NLG919 or any other of our product candidates that may be approved for marketing.
In particular, there have been and continue to be a number of initiatives at the United States federal and state levels that seek to reduce healthcare costs. Most recently, in March 2010 the Patient Protection and Affordable Health Care Act, as amended by the Health Care and Education Affordability Reconciliation Act, or collectively the PPACA, was enacted, which includes measures to significantly change the way health care is financed by both governmental and private insurers. Among the provisions of the PPACA of greatest importance to the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industry are the following:
an annual, nondeductible fee on any entity that manufactures or imports certain branded prescription drugs and biologic agents, apportioned among these entities according to their market share in certain government healthcare programs;
requirements to report certain financial arrangements with physicians and others, including reporting any “transfer of value” made or distributed to prescribers and other healthcare providers and reporting any investment interests held by physicians and their immediate family members;
a licensure framework for follow-on biologic products, also known as biosimilars;
a new Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute to oversee, identify priorities in, and conduct comparative clinical effectiveness research, along with funding for such research;
creation of the Independent Payment Advisory Board which will have authority to recommend certain changes to the Medicare program that could result in reduced payments for prescription drugs and those recommendations could have the effect of law even if Congress does not act on the recommendations; and
establishment of a Center for Medicare Innovation at the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services to test innovative payment and service delivery models to lower Medicare and Medicaid spending, potentially including prescription drug spending.
Many of the details regarding the implementation of the PPACA are yet to be determined, and at this time, it remains unclear the full effect that the PPACA would have on our business. The regulations that are ultimately promulgated and their implementation are likely to have considerable impact on the way we conduct our business and may require us to change current strategies.
Individual states have become increasingly aggressive in passing legislation and implementing regulations designed to control pharmaceutical and biological product pricing, including price or patient reimbursement constraints, discounts, restrictions on certain product access, and marketing cost disclosure and transparency measures, and designed to encourage importation from other countries and bulk purchasing. Legally-mandated price controls on payment amounts by third-party payors or other restrictions could harm our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects. In addition, regional healthcare authorities and individual hospitals are increasingly using bidding procedures to determine what pharmaceutical products and which suppliers will be included in their prescription drug and other healthcare programs. This could reduce ultimate demand for our products or put pressure on our product pricing, which could negatively affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects.
In addition, given recent federal and state government initiatives directed at lowering the total cost of healthcare, Congress and state legislatures will likely continue to focus on healthcare reform, the cost of prescription drugs and biologics and the reform of the Medicare and Medicaid programs. While we cannot predict the full outcome of any such legislation, it may result in decreased reimbursement for drugs and biologics, which may further exacerbate industry-wide pressure to reduce prescription drug prices. This could harm our ability to generate revenues. In addition, legislation has been introduced in Congress that, if enacted, would permit more widespread importation or re-importation of pharmaceutical products from foreign countries into the United States, including from countries where the products are sold at lower prices than in the United States. Such legislation, or similar regulatory changes, could put competitive pressure on our ability to profitably price our products, which, in turn, could adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects. Alternatively, in response to legislation such as this, we might elect not to seek approval for or market our products in foreign jurisdictions in order to minimize the risk of re-importation, which could also reduce the revenue we generate from our product sales. It is also possible that other legislative proposals having similar effects will be adopted.

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Furthermore, regulatory authorities’ assessment of the data and results required to demonstrate safety and efficacy can change over time and can be affected by many factors, such as the emergence of new information, including on other products, changing policies and agency funding, staffing and leadership. We cannot be sure whether future changes to the regulatory environment will be favorable or unfavorable to our business prospects. For example, average review times at the FDA for marketing approval applications have fluctuated over the last ten years, and we cannot predict the review time for any of our submissions with any regulatory authorities. In addition, review times can be affected by a variety of factors, including budget and funding levels and statutory, regulatory and policy changes.
We use hazardous materials in our business and must comply with environmental laws and regulations, which can be expensive.
Our research and development involves the controlled use of hazardous materials, chemicals, various active microorganisms and volatile organic compounds, and we may incur significant costs as a result of the need to comply with numerous laws and regulations. We are subject to laws and regulations enforced by the FDA, the Drug Enforcement Agency, foreign health authorities and other regulatory requirements, including the Occupational Safety and Health Act, the Environmental Protection Act, the Toxic Substances Control Act, the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, and other current and potential federal, state, local and foreign laws and regulations governing the use, manufacture, storage, handling and disposal of our products, materials used to develop and manufacture our product candidates, and resulting waste products. Although we believe that our safety procedures for handling and disposing of such materials, and for killing any unused microorganisms before disposing of them, comply with the standards prescribed by state and federal regulations, the risk of accidental contamination or injury from these materials cannot be completely eliminated. In the event of such an accident, we could be held liable for any damages that result and any such liability could exceed our resources.
Financial Risks
We have a history of net losses. We expect to continue to incur increasing net losses for the foreseeable future, and we may never achieve or maintain profitability.
We are not profitable and have incurred significant net losses in each year since our inception, including net losses of $31.2 million , $23.3 million and $18.1 million for the years ended December 31, 2013 , 2012 and 2011 , respectively and a net loss of $24.0 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2014 . As of September 30, 2014 , we had a deficit of $160.0 million . Our losses have resulted principally from costs incurred in our research activities. We anticipate that our operating losses will substantially increase over the next several years as we expand our commercialization activities and our discovery and research activities, including the Phase 2 and Phase 3 clinical development of the HyperAcute product candidates, the Phase 2 clinical development of indoximod, and the development of NLG919, and next generation compounds in the collaboration with Genentech.
Because of the numerous risks and uncertainties associated with biopharmaceutical product development and commercialization, we are unable to accurately predict the timing or amount of future expenses or when, or if, we will be able to achieve or maintain profitability. Currently, we have no products approved for commercial sale, and to date we have not generated any product revenue. We have financed our operations primarily through the sale of equity securities, government grants, economic development loans and capital lease and equipment financing. The size of our future net losses will depend, in part, on the rate of growth or contraction of our expenses and the level and rate of growth, if any, of our revenues. Our ability to achieve profitability is dependent on our ability, alone or with others, to complete the development of our products successfully, obtain the required regulatory approvals, manufacture and market our proposed products successfully or have such products manufactured and marketed by others and gain market acceptance for such products. There can be no assurance as to whether or when we will achieve profitability. Notwithstanding our entry into the Genentech Agreement, the potential milestone and royalty payments under that agreement are highly uncertain and dependent on many factors related to possible future clinical trials and commercialization.
We will require substantial additional capital in the future. If additional capital is not available, we will have to delay, reduce or cease operations.
Development of our HyperAcute product candidates, indoximod, NLG919, our Ebola vaccine product candidate and any other product candidates will require substantial additional funds to conduct research, development and clinical trials necessary to bring such product candidates to market and to establish manufacturing, marketing and distribution capabilities, either internally or through collaborations with third parties. Our future capital requirements will depend on many factors, including, among others:
the scope, rate of progress, results and costs of our preclinical studies, clinical trials and other research and development activities;
the scope, rate of progress and costs of our manufacturing development and commercial manufacturing activities;
the cost, timing and outcomes of regulatory proceedings (including FDA review of any BLA or NDA we submit);

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payments required with respect to development milestones we achieve under our in-licensing agreements;
the costs involved in preparing, filing, prosecuting, maintaining and enforcing patent claims;
the costs associated with commercializing our product candidates, if they receive regulatory approval;
the cost and timing of developing our ability to establish sales and marketing capabilities;
competing technological efforts and market developments;
changes in our existing research relationships;
our ability to establish collaborative arrangements to the extent necessary;
revenues received from any existing or future products; and
payments received under any future strategic collaborations.
We anticipate that we will continue to generate significant losses in the future as we incur expenses to complete our clinical trial programs for our product candidates, build commercial capabilities, develop our pipeline and expand our corporate infrastructure. We believe that our existing cash and cash equivalents and certificates of deposit, including the proceeds from our follow-on public offering that closed on February 4, 2013, and proceeds received to date from our ATM Offering, if any, will allow us to fund our operating plan well into 2015, although not through commercialization and launch of revenue producing products. However, our operating plan may change as a result of factors currently unknown to us.
There can be no assurance that our revenue and expense forecasts will prove to be accurate, and any change in the foregoing assumptions could require us to obtain additional financing earlier than anticipated. There is a risk of delay or failure at any stage of developing a product candidate, and the time required and costs involved in successfully accomplishing our objectives cannot be accurately predicted. Actual drug research and development costs could substantially exceed budgeted amounts, which could force us to delay, reduce the scope of or eliminate one or more of our research or development programs.
We are party to license agreements with various parties pursuant to which we have obtained licenses to certain patents, patent applications and other intellectual property related to our product candidates and product development efforts. Pursuant to most of these license agreements, we are obligated to make aggregate payments ranging from approximately $200,000 to $2.8 million per license (and in some cases, for each product candidate in such license) upon achievement of development and regulatory approval milestones specified in the applicable license. The timing of our achievement of these events and corresponding milestone payments to our licensors are subject to factors relating to the clinical and regulatory development and commercialization of our product candidates, many of which are beyond our control. We may become obligated to make a milestone payment when we do not have the cash on hand to make such payment, which could require us to delay our clinical trials, curtail our operations, scale back our commercialization or marketing efforts or seek funds to meet these obligations on terms unfavorable to us.
We may never be able to generate a sufficient amount of product revenue to cover our expenses. Until we do, we expect to seek additional funding through public or private equity or debt financings, collaborative relationships, capital lease transactions or other available financing transactions. However, there can be no assurance that additional financing will be available on acceptable terms, if at all, and such financings could be dilutive to existing stockholders. Moreover, in the event that additional funds are obtained through arrangements with collaborators, such arrangements may require us to relinquish rights to certain of our technologies, product candidates or products that we would otherwise seek to develop or commercialize ourselves.
If adequate funds are not available, we may be required to delay, reduce the scope of or eliminate one or more of our research or development programs. Our failure to obtain adequate financing when needed and on acceptable terms would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We have a forgivable loan that may have to be repaid if we do not achieve job creation goals.
In March 2010, we entered into a $400,000 forgivable loan agreement with the City of Ames, Iowa and the Ames Chamber of Commerce that requires us to create or retain at least 150 full-time positions located in Ames, Iowa as of March 10, 2015. If, as of March 10, 2015, we have fulfilled the terms of the loan agreement, the loan will be forgiven. If on March 10, 2015, we have failed to create or retain at least 150 full-time jobs in Ames, Iowa, we will be required to repay approximately $3,100 per job not created or retained. As of September 30, 2014 , we had created or retained an aggregate of 96 full-time jobs in Ames, Iowa. On July 25, 2014, we received $100,000 after completing certification regarding the creation of a threshold level of jobs, as part of a $400,000 forgivable loan agreement with the City of Ames, Iowa and the Ames Chamber of Commerce, jointly, as lenders.
We have not yet met all the job creation requirements of the City of Ames loan. If we cannot or do not comply with this and all other requirements under this loan, we may be obligated to partially repay principal and interest on this loan.


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Even though we have received governmental support in the past, we may not continue to receive support at the same level or at all.
We have received significant financial assistance from state and local governments, primarily in the form of forgivable loans. There can be no assurance that we will continue to receive the same level of assistance from these or other government agencies, if at all.
Through our subsidiary, BioProtection Systems Corporation, or BPS, we also have an ongoing contract with the United States Department of Defense and pending applications with the National Institutes of Health and the Department of Defense. We also have a letter contract providing for $2.9 million in funding for our Ebola vaccine product candidate development efforts. There is no guarantee that we will receive sufficient, or any, future grant funding to meet our obligations related to our Ebola vaccine development or to succeed in developing an Ebola vaccine. The termination of a United States government grant, contract or relationship as a result of our failure to satisfy any of our obligations under the grants or contracts would have a negative impact on our operations and harm our reputation and ability to procure government contracts. Additionally, there can be no assurance that we will secure comparable contracts with, or grants from, the United States government in the future.
Changes in our effective income tax rate could adversely affect our results of operations in the future.
We may become subject to income taxes in the United States or foreign jurisdictions, and our effective income tax rate, as well as our relative domestic and international tax liabilities, will depend in part on the allocation of any future income among different jurisdictions. In addition, various factors may have favorable or unfavorable effects on our effective income tax rate in individual jurisdictions or in the aggregate. These factors include whether tax authorities agree with our interpretations of existing tax laws, any required accounting for stock options and other share-based compensation, changes in tax laws and rates, our future levels of research and development spending, changes in accounting standards, changes in the mix of any future earnings in the various tax jurisdictions in which we may operate, the outcome of any examinations by the U.S. Internal Revenue Service or other tax authorities, the accuracy of our estimates for unrecognized tax benefits and realization of deferred tax assets and changes in overall levels of pre-tax earnings. The effect on our income tax liabilities resulting from the above-mentioned factors or other factors could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.
Risks Relating to Competition
We compete in an industry characterized by extensive research and development efforts and rapid technological progress. New discoveries or commercial developments by our competitors could render our potential products obsolete or non-competitive.
New developments occur and are expected to continue to occur at a rapid pace, and there can be no assurance that discoveries or commercial developments by our competitors will not render some or all of our potential products obsolete or non-competitive, which would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We expect to compete with fully integrated and well-established pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies in the near and long term. Most of these companies have substantially greater financial, research and development, manufacturing and marketing experience and resources than we do and represent substantial long-term competition for us. Such companies may succeed in discovering and developing pharmaceutical products more rapidly than we do or pharmaceutical products that are safer, more effective or less costly than any that we may develop. Such companies also may be more successful than we are in production and marketing. Smaller companies may also prove to be significant competitors, particularly through collaborative arrangements with large pharmaceutical and established biotechnology companies. Academic institutions, governmental agencies and other public and private research organizations also conduct clinical trials, seek patent protection and establish collaborative arrangements for the development of oncology products.
We will face competition based on product efficacy and safety, the timing and scope of regulatory approvals, availability of supply, marketing and sales capabilities, reimbursement coverage, price and patent position. There can be no assurance that our competitors will not develop safer and more effective products, commercialize products earlier than we do, or obtain patent protection or intellectual property rights that limit our ability to commercialize our products.
There can be no assurance that our issued patents or pending patent applications, if issued, will not be challenged, invalidated or circumvented or that the rights granted thereunder will provide us with proprietary protection or a competitive advantage.

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The biopharmaceutical industry is highly competitive. Given the significant unmet patient need for new therapies, oncology is an area of focus for many public and private biopharmaceutical companies, public and private universities and research organizations actively engaged in the discovery and research and development of products for cancer. As a result, there are and will likely continue to be extensive research and substantial financial resources invested in the discovery and development of new oncology products. In addition, there are a number of multinational pharmaceutical companies and large biotechnology companies currently marketing or pursuing the development of products or product candidates targeting the same cancer indications as our product candidates.
The cancer immunotherapy landscape is broad but still in the early stages of development as a class of therapeutics, with only one FDA-approved active cellular immunotherapy product, Dendreon Corporation's Provenge (sipuleucel-T) for the treatment of asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic metastatic castrate resistant (hormone refractory) prostate cancer. We estimate that there are over 100 cancer immunotherapy products in clinical development by approximately 70 public and private biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies. Trials of these product candidates target many different cancer types. Of this universe, several large public biopharmaceutical companies are developing or have commercialized cancer immunotherapy products, including Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, Dendreon Corporation, GlaxoSmithKline plc, MedImmune/Aztra Zenaca, Merck & Co., Inc., Merck KGaA and Sanofi-Aventis. There are numerous immunotherapeutic approaches to cancer immunotherapy product development, including but not limited to anti-idiotype, whole cell, DNA, peptide/antigen, viral, tumor lysate, shed antigens, and dendritic cell. To the extent applicable, cancer immunotherapies are also distinguished by whether or not they are derived from autologous or allogeneic sources. Different approaches to cancer immunotherapy design have the potential to confer corresponding advantages and disadvantages based on their respective immunostimulatory mechanisms, formulation characteristics, manufacturing requirements, and logistical demands.
There are no anti-cancer drugs currently approved by the FDA for patients with resected pancreatic cancer.  However, there are several companies actively marketing anti-cancer drugs indicated for patients with advanced pancreatic cancer including: Celgene Corporation with Abraxane (nab-paclitaxel) and Genentech/Astellas with Tarceva (erlotonib).  Additionally, there are numerous generic drugs approved for advanced disease including: gemcitabine, fluorouracil and mytomycin C.  In addition, there are a number of companies with active clinical trials ongoing in pancreatic cancer.
There are numerous companies actively marketing FDA approved drugs for patients with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, or NSCLC, including Celgene with Abraxane (nab-paclitaxel), Genentech/Roche with Avastin (bevacizumab), Eli Lilly with Alimta (premetrexed), Astellas/Genentech with Tarceva (erlotinib) and Pfizer with Xalkori (crizotinib).  Additionally, there a number of generic drugs with FDA approval for use in NSCLC, including cisplatin, docetaxel, paclitaxel, gemcitabine, vinorelbine and methotrexate. In addition, there are a number of companies with active clinical trials ongoing in NSCLC.
Research and discoveries by others may result in breakthroughs that render our HyperAcute product candidates, indoximod, NLG919 or our other potential products obsolete even before they begin to generate any revenue. If the FDA approves the commercial sale of any of our product candidates, we will also be competing with respect to marketing capabilities and manufacturing efficiency, areas in which we have limited or no experience. We expect that competition among products approved for sale will be based, among other things, on product efficacy, price, safety, reliability, availability, patent protection, and sales, marketing and distribution capabilities. Our profitability and financial position will suffer if our products receive regulatory approval but cannot compete effectively in the marketplace.
Our biodefense product candidates face significant competition for United States government funding for both development and procurement of medical countermeasures for biological, chemical and nuclear threats, diagnostic testing systems and other emergency preparedness countermeasures. Public and private biopharmaceutical companies, academic institutions, government agencies, private research organizations and public research organizations are conducting research and filing patents toward commercialization of products. In particular, given the widespread media attention on the current Ebola epidemic, there are competitive efforts by public and private entities to develop an Ebola vaccine as fast as possible, including by GlaxoSmithKline. Those other entities may develop Ebola vaccines that are more effective than any we may develop, or may develop an Ebola vaccine at a lower cost or earlier than we are able to develop any Ebola vaccine, or they may be more successful at commercializing an Ebola vaccine. The success or failure of other entities, or perceived success or failure, may adversely impact our ability to obtain any future funding for our Ebola vaccine development efforts. In addition, we may not be able to compete effectively if our product candidates do not satisfy government procurement requirements with respect to biodefense products.
Our future products, if any, may not be accepted in the marketplace; therefore, we may not be able to generate significant revenue, or any revenue.
Even if the HyperAcute product candidates, indoximod, NLG919 or any of our other potential products are approved for sale, physicians and the medical community may not ultimately use them or may use them only in applications more restricted

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than we expect. Our future products, if successfully developed, will compete with a number of traditional products and immunotherapies manufactured and marketed by major pharmaceutical and other biotechnology companies. Our products will also compete with new products currently under development by such companies and others. Physicians will prescribe a product only if they determine, based on experience, clinical data, side effect profiles and other factors, that it is beneficial as compared to other products currently in use. Many other factors influence the adoption of new products, including marketing and distribution restrictions, course of treatment, adverse publicity, product pricing, the views of thought leaders in the medical community and reimbursement by government and private third party payors.
Risks Relating to Our Arrangements with Third Parties
We rely on third parties to conduct our preclinical studies and our clinical trials. If these third parties do not perform as contractually required or expected, we may not be able to obtain regulatory approval for our product candidates, or we may be delayed in doing so.
We do not have the ability to conduct preclinical studies or clinical trials independently for our product candidates. We must rely on third parties, such as contract research organizations, medical institutions, academic institutions, clinical investigators and contract laboratories, to conduct our preclinical studies and clinical trials. We are responsible for confirming that our preclinical studies are conducted in accordance with applicable regulations and that each of our clinical trials is conducted in accordance with its general investigational plan and protocol. The FDA requires us to comply with GLP for conducting and recording the results of our preclinical studies and cGCP for conducting, monitoring, recording and reporting the results of clinical trials, to assure that data and reported results are accurate and that the clinical trial participants are adequately protected. Our reliance on third parties does not relieve us of these responsibilities. If the third parties conducting our clinical trials do not perform their contractual duties or obligations, do not meet expected deadlines, fail to comply with cGCP, do not adhere to our clinical trial protocols or otherwise fail to generate reliable clinical data, we may need to enter into new arrangements with alternative third parties and our clinical trials may be more costly than expected or budgeted, extended, delayed or terminated or may need to be repeated, and we may not be able to obtain regulatory approval for or commercialize the product candidate being tested in such trials.
Further, if our contract manufacturers are not in compliance with regulatory requirements at any stage, including post-marketing approval, we may be fined, forced to remove a product from the market and/or experience other adverse consequences, including delays, which could materially harm our business.
If we fail to enter into any needed collaboration agreements for our product candidates, we may be unable to commercialize them effectively or at all.
To successfully commercialize the HyperAcute product candidates, indoximod, NLG919, our Ebola vaccine product candidate or any other potential product, we will need substantial financial resources as well as expertise and physical resources and systems. We may elect to develop some or all of these physical resources and systems and expertise ourselves or we may seek to collaborate with another company that can provide some or all of such physical resources and systems as well as financial resources and expertise. In October 2014, we entered into the Genentech Agreement to commercialize NLG919. Such collaborations are complex and any potential discussions may not result in a definitive agreement for many reasons. For example, whether we reach a definitive agreement for a collaboration will depend, among other things, upon our assessment of the collaborator’s resources and expertise, the terms and conditions of the proposed collaboration, and the proposed collaborator’s evaluation of a number of factors. Those factors may include the design or results of our clinical trials, the potential market for the HyperAcute product candidates, indoximod, our Ebola vaccine product candidate or any other potential product, the costs and complexities of manufacturing and delivering the HyperAcute product candidates, indoximod, our Ebola vaccine product candidate or any other potential product to patients, the potential of competing products, the existence of uncertainty with respect to ownership or the coverage of our technology, which can exist if there is a challenge to such ownership without regard to the merits of the challenge and industry and market conditions generally. If we were to determine that a collaboration for the HyperAcute product candidates, indoximod, our Ebola vaccine product candidate or any other potential product is necessary or beneficial and were unable to enter into such a collaboration on acceptable terms, we might elect to delay or scale back the commercialization of the HyperAcute product candidates, indoximod, our Ebola vaccine product candidate or any other potential product in order to preserve our financial resources or to allow us adequate time to develop the required physical resources and systems and expertise ourselves.
If we enter into a collaboration agreement we consider acceptable, including the Genentech Agreement to commercialize NLG919, the collaboration may not proceed as quickly, smoothly or successfully as we plan. The risks in a collaboration agreement include the following:

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the collaborator may not apply the expected financial resources, efforts or required expertise in developing the physical resources and systems necessary to successfully commercialize the HyperAcute product candidates, indoximod, NLG919, our Ebola vaccine product candidate or any other potential product;
the collaborator may not invest in the development of a sales and marketing force and the related infrastructure at levels that ensure that sales of the HyperAcute product candidates, indoximod, NLG919, our Ebola vaccine product candidate or any other potential product reach their full potential;
disputes may arise between us and a collaborator that delay the commercialization or adversely affect its sales or profitability of the HyperAcute product candidates, indoximod, NLG919, our Ebola vaccine product candidate or any other potential product; or
the collaborator may independently develop, or develop with third parties, products that could compete with the HyperAcute product candidates, indoximod, NLG919, our Ebola vaccine product candidate or any other potential product.
Under the Genentech Agreement and any other collaboration for our HyperAcute product candidates, indoximod, our Ebola vaccine product candidate or any of our other product candidates into which we may enter, we will be dependent on our collaborators’ performance of their responsibilities and their cooperation with us. Our collaborators may not perform their obligations under our agreements with them or otherwise cooperate with us. We cannot control whether our collaborators will devote the necessary resources to the activities contemplated by our collaborative agreements, nor can we control the timing of their performance. Our collaborators may choose to pursue existing or alternative technologies in preference to those being developed in collaboration with us. Disputes may arise between us and our collaborators that delay the development and commercialization of our product candidates that are difficult and costly to resolve, or may not be resolved. In addition, a collaborator for the HyperAcute product candidates, indoximod, our Ebola vaccine product candidate or any other potential product may have the right to terminate the collaboration at its discretion and, in the case of NLG919, Genentech does have the right to terminate the Genentech Agreement for any reason after October 16, 2016. Any termination may require us to seek a new collaborator, which we may not be able to do on a timely basis, if at all, or require us to delay or scale back the commercialization efforts. The occurrence of any of these events could adversely affect the commercialization of the HyperAcute product candidates, indoximod, NLG919, our Ebola vaccine product candidate or any other potential product and materially harm our business and stock price by delaying the sale of any product that may be approved by the FDA, by slowing the growth of such sales, by reducing the profitability of the product and/or by adversely affecting the reputation of the product.
We may explore strategic collaborations that may never materialize or may fail.
We may, in the future, periodically explore a variety of possible strategic collaborations in an effort to gain access to additional product candidates or resources. At the current time, we cannot predict what form such a strategic collaboration might take. We are likely to face significant competition in seeking appropriate strategic collaborators, and these strategic collaborations can be complicated and time consuming to negotiate and document. We may not be able to negotiate strategic collaborations on acceptable terms, or at all. We are unable to predict when, if ever, we will enter into any additional strategic collaborations because of the numerous risks and uncertainties associated with establishing strategic collaborations.
Under the Genentech Agreement, we are required, and if we enter into one or more strategic collaborations, we may be required to relinquish important rights to and control over the development of our product candidates or otherwise be subject to unfavorable terms.
Our collaboration under the Genentech Agreement and future strategic collaborations we enter into could subject us to a number of risks, including:
we may be required to undertake the expenditure of substantial operational, financial and management resources;
other than under the Genentech Agreement, we may be required to issue equity securities that would dilute our existing stockholders’ percentage ownership;
we may be required to assume substantial actual or contingent liabilities;
we may not be able to control the amount and timing of resources that our strategic collaborators devote to the development or commercialization of our product candidates;
strategic partners may delay clinical trials, provide insufficient funding, terminate a clinical trial or abandon a product candidate, repeat or conduct new clinical trials or require a new version of a product candidate for clinical testing;
strategic collaborators may not pursue further development and commercialization of products resulting from the strategic collaboration arrangement or may elect to discontinue research and development programs;
strategic collaborators may not commit adequate resources to the marketing and distribution of our product candidates, limiting our potential revenues from these products;

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disputes may arise between us and our strategic collaborators that result in the delay or termination of the research, development or commercialization of our product candidates or that result in costly litigation or arbitration that diverts management’s attention and consumes resources;
strategic collaborators may experience financial difficulties;
strategic collaborators may not properly maintain or defend our intellectual property rights or may use our proprietary information in a manner that could jeopardize or invalidate our proprietary information or expose us to potential litigation;
business combinations or significant changes in a strategic collaborator's business strategy may also adversely affect a strategic collaborator's willingness or ability to complete its obligations under any arrangement;
strategic collaborators could decide to move forward with a competing product candidate developed either independently or in collaboration with others, including our competitors; and
strategic collaborators could terminate the arrangement or allow it to expire, which would delay the development and may increase the cost of developing our product candidates.
Risks Relating to Protecting Our Intellectual Property
If we are unable to protect our proprietary rights or to defend against infringement claims, we may not be able to compete effectively or operate profitably.
Our success will depend, in part, on our ability to obtain patents, operate without infringing the proprietary rights of others and maintain trade secrets, both in the United States and other countries. Patent matters in the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries can be highly uncertain and involve complex legal and factual questions. Accordingly, the validity, breadth, and enforceability of our patents and the existence of potentially blocking patent rights of others cannot be predicted, either in the United States or in other countries.
There can be no assurance that we will discover or develop patentable products or processes or that patents will issue from any of the currently pending patent applications or that claims granted on issued patents will be sufficient to protect our technology or adequately cover the actual products we may actually sell. Potential competitors or other researchers in the field may have filed patent applications, been issued patents, published articles or otherwise created prior art that could restrict or block our efforts to obtain additional patents. There also can be no assurance that our issued patents or pending patent applications, if issued, will not be challenged, invalidated, rendered unenforceable or circumvented or that the rights granted hereunder will provide us with proprietary protection or competitive advantages. Our patent rights also depend on our compliance with technology and patent licenses upon which our patent rights are based and upon the validity of assignments of patent rights from consultants and other inventors that were, or are, not employed by us.
In addition, competitors may manufacture and sell our potential products in those foreign countries where we have not filed for patent protection or where patent protection may be unavailable, not obtainable or ultimately not enforceable. In addition, even where patent protection is obtained, third party competitors may challenge our patent claims in the various patent offices, for example via opposition in the European Patent Office or reexamination or interference proceedings in the United States Patent and Trademark Office, or USPTO. The ability of such competitors to sell such products in the United States or in foreign countries where we have obtained patents is usually governed by the patent laws of the countries in which the product is sold.
We will incur significant ongoing expenses in maintaining our patent portfolio. Should we lack the funds to maintain our patent portfolio or to enforce our rights against infringers, we could be adversely impacted. Even if claims of infringement are without merit, any such action could divert the time and attention of management and impair our ability to access additional capital and/or cost us significant funds to defend.
Recent patent reform legislation could increase the uncertainties and costs surrounding the prosecution of our patent applications and the enforcement or defense of our issued patents.
On September 16, 2011, the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act, or the Leahy-Smith Act, was signed into law. The Leahy-Smith Act includes a number of significant changes to United States patent law. These include provisions that affect the way patent applications will be prosecuted and may also affect patent litigation. The United States Patent and Trademark Office has developed regulations and procedures to govern administration of the Leahy-Smith Act, but many of the substantive changes to patent law associated with the Leahy-Smith Act, particularly the first inventor to file provisions, only became effective 18 months after its enactment. Accordingly, it is not clear what, if any, impact the Leahy-Smith Act will have on the operation of our business. However, the Leahy-Smith Act and its implementation could increase the uncertainties and costs surrounding the prosecution of our patent applications and the enforcement or defense of our issued patents, all of which could have a material adverse effect on our business and financial condition.

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We may be subject to litigation with respect to the ownership and use of intellectual property that will be costly to defend or pursue and uncertain in its outcome.
Our success also will depend, in part, on our refraining from infringing patents or otherwise violating intellectual property owned or controlled by others. Pharmaceutical companies, biotechnology companies, universities, research institutions, and others may have filed patent applications or have received, or may obtain, issued patents in the United States or elsewhere relating to aspects of our technology. It is uncertain whether the issuance of any third-party patents will require us to alter our products or processes, obtain licenses, or cease certain activities. Some third-party applications or patents may conflict with our issued patents or pending applications. Any such conflict could result in a significant reduction of the scope or value of our issued or licensed patents.
In addition, if patents issued to other companies contain blocking, dominating or conflicting claims and such claims are ultimately determined to be valid, we may be required to obtain licenses to these patents or to develop or obtain alternative non-infringing technology and cease practicing those activities, including potentially manufacturing or selling any products deemed to infringe those patents. If any licenses are required, there can be no assurance that we will be able to obtain any such licenses on commercially favorable terms, if at all, and if these licenses are not obtained, we might be prevented from pursuing the development and commercialization of certain of our potential products. Our failure to obtain a license to any technology that we may require to commercialize our products on favorable terms may have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Litigation, which could result in substantial costs to us (even if determined in our favor), may also be necessary to enforce any patents issued or licensed to us or to determine the scope and validity of the proprietary rights of others. There can be no assurance that our issued or licensed patents would be held valid by a court of competent jurisdiction or that any third party would be found to infringe our patents.
In addition, if our competitors file patent applications in the United States that claim technology also claimed by us, we may have to participate in interference proceedings to determine priority of invention. These proceedings, if initiated by the USPTO, could result in substantial cost to us, even if the eventual outcome is favorable to us. Such proceedings can be lengthy, are costly to defend and involve complex questions of law and fact the outcomes of which are difficult to predict. An adverse outcome with respect to a third party claim or in an interference proceeding could subject us to significant liabilities, require us to license disputed rights from third parties, or require us to cease using such technology, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We also rely on trade secrets to protect technology, especially where patent protection is not believed to be appropriate or obtainable or where patents have not issued. We attempt to protect our proprietary technology and processes, in part, with confidentiality agreements and assignment of invention agreements with our employees and confidentiality agreements with our consultants and certain contractors. There can be no assurance that these agreements will not be breached, that we would have adequate remedies for any breach, or that our trade secrets will not otherwise become known or be independently discovered by competitors. We may fail in certain circumstances to obtain the necessary confidentiality agreements, or their scope or term may not be sufficiently broad to protect our interests.
If our trade secrets or other intellectual property become known to our competitors, it could result in a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. To the extent that we or our consultants or research collaborators use intellectual property owned by others in work for us, disputes may also arise as to the rights to related or resulting know-how and inventions.
Risks Relating to Our Exposure to Litigation
We are exposed to potential product liability or similar claims, and insurance against these claims may not be available to us at a reasonable rate in the future.
Our business exposes us to potential liability risks that are inherent in the testing, manufacturing, marketing and commercial sale of human therapeutic products. Clinical trials involve the testing of product candidates on human subjects or volunteers under a research plan, and carry a risk of liability for personal injury or death to patients due to unforeseen adverse side effects, improper administration of the product candidate, or other factors. Many of these patients are already seriously ill and are therefore particularly vulnerable to further illness or death. In addition, healthy volunteers in our Ebola vaccine product candidate clinical trial may suffer, or perceive themselves to suffer, personal injury or death related to the Ebola vaccine product candidate, and may initiate legal action against us.

44


We currently carry clinical trial liability insurance in the amount of $5 million in the aggregate, but there can be no assurance that we will be able to maintain such insurance or that the amount of such insurance will be adequate to cover claims. We could be materially and adversely affected if we were required to pay damages or incur defense costs in connection with a claim outside the scope of indemnity or insurance coverage, if the indemnity is not performed or enforced in accordance with its terms, or if our liability exceeds the amount of applicable insurance. In addition, there can be no assurance that insurance will continue to be available on terms acceptable to us, if at all, or that if obtained, the insurance coverage will be sufficient to cover any potential claims or liabilities. Similar risks would exist upon the commercialization or marketing of any future products by us or our collaborators.
Regardless of their merit or eventual outcome, product liability claims may result in:
decreased demand for our product;
injury to our reputation and significant negative media attention;
withdrawal of clinical trial volunteers;
costs of litigation;
distraction of management; and
substantial monetary awards to plaintiffs.
We may become involved in securities class action litigation that could divert management’s attention and adversely affect our business and could subject us to significant liabilities.
The stock markets have from time to time experienced significant price and volume fluctuations that have affected the market prices for the common stock of biopharmaceutical companies. These broad market fluctuations as well a broad range of other factors, including the realization of any of the risks described in this “Risk Factor,” section of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, may cause the market price of our common stock to decline. In the past, securities class action litigation has often been brought against a company following a decline in the market price of its securities. This risk is especially relevant for us because biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies generally experience significant stock price volatility. We may become involved in this type of litigation in the future. Litigation often is expensive and diverts management’s attention and resources, which could adversely affect our business. Any adverse determination in any such litigation or any amounts paid to settle any such actual or threatened litigation could require that we make significant payments.
Risks Related to Ownership of Our Common Stock
The market price of our common stock may be highly volatile, and could decline significantly.
The trading price of our common stock is likely to be highly volatile and could be subject to wide fluctuations in price in response to various factors, many of which are beyond our control, including those described elsewhere in this “Risk Factors” section of this this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q and the following:
new products, product candidates or new uses for existing products introduced or announced by our strategic collaborators, or our competitors, and the timing of these introductions or announcements;
actual or anticipated results from and any delays in our clinical trials, including our Phase 3 IMPRESS clinical trial of our algenpantucel-L, as well as results of regulatory reviews relating to the approval of our product candidates;
variations in the level of expenses related to any of our product candidates or clinical development programs, including relating to the timing of invoices from, and other billing practices of, our clinical research organizations and clinical trial sites;
expenses related to, or our ability or perceived ability to secure, an adequate supply of any future products approved for commercial sale;
the results of our efforts to discover, develop, acquire or in-license additional product candidates or products;
disputes or other developments relating to proprietary rights, including patents, litigation matters and our ability to obtain patent protection for our technologies;
announcements by us or our competitors of significant acquisitions, strategic collaborations, joint ventures and capital commitments;
the commercial or clinical success or failure, or perceived successes or failures, of our collaborators, including Genentech;
additions or departures of key scientific or management personnel;
conditions or trends in the biotechnology and biopharmaceutical industries;

45


media attention, or changes in media attention, on cancer and cancer treatment, on the Ebola epidemic and efforts to develop treatments and vaccines for Ebola, or any other condition or disease that our product candidates are being developed to treat;
actual or anticipated changes in earnings estimates, development timelines or recommendations by securities analysts;
actual and anticipated fluctuations in our quarterly operating results;
the financial projections we may provide to the public, and any changes in these projections or our failure to meet these projections;
deviations from securities analysts’ estimates or the impact of other analyst ratings downgrades by any securities analysts who follow our common stock;
other events or factors, including those resulting from war, incidents of terrorism, natural disasters or responses to these events;
changes in accounting principles;
discussion of us or our stock price by the financial and scientific press and in online investor communities;
general economic and market conditions and other factors that may be unrelated to our operating performance or the operating performance of our competitors, including changes in market valuations of similar companies; and
sales of common stock by us or our stockholders in the future, as well as the overall trading volume of our common stock.
In addition, the stock market in general and the market for biotechnology and biopharmaceutical companies in particular have experienced extreme price and volume fluctuations that have often been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of those companies. These broad market and industry factors may seriously harm the market price of our common stock, regardless of our operating performance. In the past, following periods of volatility in the market, securities class-action litigation has often been instituted against companies. Such litigation, if instituted against us, could result in substantial costs and diversion of management’s attention and resources, which could materially and adversely affect our business and financial condition.
Our principal stockholders and management own a significant percentage of our stock and will be able to exercise significant influence over matters subject to stockholder approval.
As of September 30, 2014 , our executive officers, directors and principal stockholders, together with their respective affiliates, owned approximately 44.9% of our common stock, including shares subject to outstanding options and warrants that are exercisable within 60 days after September 30, 2014 . These stockholders will be able to exert a significant degree of influence over our management and affairs and over matters requiring stockholder approval, including the election of our Board of Directors, future issuances of our common stock or other securities, declarations of dividends on our common stock and approval of other significant corporate transactions. This concentration of ownership could have the effect of delaying or preventing a change in our control or otherwise discouraging a potential acquirer from attempting to obtain control of us, which in turn could have a material and adverse effect on the fair market value of our common stock. In addition, sales of shares beneficially owned by executive officers and directors and their affiliates could be viewed negatively by third parties and have a negative impact on our stock price. Moreover, we cannot assure you as to how these shares may be distributed and subsequently voted.
A significant portion of our total outstanding shares of common stock is restricted from immediate resale but may be sold into the market in the near future. This could cause the market price of our common stock to drop significantly, even if our business is doing well.
Sales of a substantial number of shares of our common stock in the public market could occur in the future. These sales, or the perception in the market that the holders of a large number of shares of common stock intend to sell shares, could reduce the market price of our common stock. Certain holders of outstanding shares of our common stock that have rights, subject to some conditions, to require us to file registration statements covering their shares or to include their shares in registration statements that we may file for ourselves or other stockholders.

46


We incur significant costs as a result of operating as a public company, and our management is required to devote substantial time to meet compliance obligations.
As a public company, we incur significant legal, accounting and other expenses to comply with reporting requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, or the Exchange Act, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, or the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, as well as rules subsequently implemented by the SEC and The NASDAQ Stock Market, or NASDAQ. Meeting the requirements of these rules and regulations entails significant legal and financial compliance costs, makes some activities more difficult, time-consuming or costly and may also place undue strain on our personnel, systems and resources. Our management and other personnel devote a substantial amount of time to these compliance requirements. In addition, these rules and regulations may make it more difficult and more expensive for us to obtain director and officer liability insurance, and we may be required to accept reduced policy limits and coverage or incur substantially higher costs to obtain the same or similar coverage. As a result, it may be more difficult for us to attract and retain qualified people to serve on our Board of Directors, our board committees or as executive officers.
Failure to achieve and maintain effective internal controls in accordance with Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act could have a material adverse effect on our ability to produce accurate financial statements and on our stock price.
Pursuant to Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, we are required to publish a report by our management on our internal control over financial reporting. To achieve compliance with Section 404, we have engaged in a process to document and evaluate our internal control over financial reporting, which has been both costly and challenging. To maintain compliance on an ongoing basis, we will need to dedicate internal resources, engage outside consultants and adopt a detailed work plan. Despite our effort, there is a risk that neither we nor our independent registered public accounting firm will be able to conclude that our internal control over financial reporting is effective as required by Section 404. This could result in an adverse reaction in the financial markets due to a loss of confidence in the reliability of our financial statements.
We do not expect to pay any cash dividends for the foreseeable future. Investors may never obtain a return on their investment.
You should not rely on an investment in our common stock to provide dividend income. We do not anticipate that we will pay any cash dividends to holders of our common stock in the foreseeable future. Instead, we plan to retain any earnings to maintain and expand our existing operations. In addition, our ability to pay cash dividends is currently prohibited by the terms of one of our debt financing arrangements, and any future debt financing arrangement may contain terms prohibiting or limiting the amount of dividends that may be declared or paid on our common stock. Accordingly, investors must rely on sales of their common stock after price appreciation, which may never occur, as the only way to realize any return on their investment. As a result, investors seeking cash dividends should not purchase our common stock.
Provisions in our certificate of incorporation, our by-laws or Delaware law might discourage, delay or prevent a change in control of our company or changes in our management and, therefore, depress the trading price of our common stock.
Provisions of our certificate of incorporation, our by-laws or Delaware law may have the effect of deterring unsolicited takeovers or delaying or preventing a change in control of our company or changes in our management, including transactions in which our stockholders might otherwise receive a premium for their shares over then current market prices. In addition, these provisions may limit the ability of stockholders to approve transactions that they may deem to be in their best interest. These provisions include:
the division of our Board of Directors into three classes with staggered, three-year terms;
advance notice requirements for stockholder proposals and nominations;
the inability of stockholders to act by written consent or to call special meetings;
limitation on the ability of stockholders to remove directors or amend our by-laws; and
the ability of our Board of Directors to designate the terms of and issue new series of preferred stock without stockholder approval, which could include the right to approve an acquisition or other change in our control or could be used to institute a rights plan, also known as a poison pill, that would work to dilute the stock ownership of a potential hostile acquirer, likely preventing acquisitions that have not been approved by our Board of Directors.
In addition, Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law prohibits a publicly-held Delaware corporation from engaging in a business combination with an interested stockholder, generally a person which together with its affiliates owns, or within the last three years has owned, 15% of our voting stock, for a period of three years after the date of the transaction in which the person became an interested stockholder, unless the business combination is approved in a prescribed manner.

47


The existence of the foregoing provisions and anti-takeover measures could limit the price that investors might be willing to pay in the future for shares of our common stock. They could also deter potential acquirers of our company, thereby reducing the likelihood that you could receive a premium for your common stock in an acquisition.
Our stockholders may be diluted, and the prices of our securities may decrease, by the exercise of outstanding stock options and warrants or by future issuances of securities by us.
We may issue additional common stock, preferred stock, restricted stock units, or securities convertible into or exchangeable for our common stock. Furthermore, substantially all shares of common stock for which our outstanding stock options or warrants are exercisable are, once they have been purchased, eligible for immediate sale in the public market. The issuance of additional common stock, preferred stock, restricted stock units, or securities convertible into or exchangeable for our common stock or the exercise of stock options or warrants would dilute existing investors and could adversely affect the price of our securities. In addition, such securities may have rights senior to the rights of securities held by existing investors.
Our ability to use our net operating loss carryforwards and certain other tax attributes is limited by Sections 382 and 383 of the Internal Revenue Code.
Sections 382 and 383 of the Internal Revenue Code limit a corporation’s ability to utilize its net operating loss carryforwards and certain other tax attributes (including research credits) to offset any future taxable income or tax if the corporation experiences a cumulative ownership change of more than 50% over any rolling three year period. State net operating loss carryforwards (and certain other tax attributes) may be similarly limited. A Section 382 ownership change can therefore result in significantly greater tax liabilities than a corporation would incur in the absence of such a change and any increased liabilities could adversely affect the corporation’s business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flow.
Based on Section 382 ownership change analyses, we believe that, from its inception through December 31, 2013, NewLink experienced Section 382 ownership changes in September 2001 and March 2003 and BPS experienced Section 382 ownership changes in January 2006 and January 2011. These ownership changes limit NewLink’s ability to utilize federal net operating loss carryforwards (and certain other tax attributes) that accrued prior to the respective ownership changes of NewLink and our subsidiary.
Additional analysis will be required to determine whether changes in our ownership since December 31, 2013 have occurred. Any such change could result in significant limitations on all of our net operating loss carryforwards and other tax attributes.
Additional ownership changes may occur in the future as a result of events over which we will have little or no control, including purchases and sales of our equity by our 5% stockholders, the emergence of new 5% stockholders, additional equity offerings or redemptions of our stock or certain changes in the ownership of any of our 5% stockholders.
Accounting pronouncements may impact our reported results of operations and financial position.
United States generally accepted accounting principles, or GAAP, and related implementation guidelines and interpretations can be highly complex and involve subjective judgments. Changes in these rules or their interpretation, the adoption of new pronouncements or the application of existing pronouncements to changes in our business could significantly alter our reported financial statements and results of operations.
If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, our stock price and trading volume could decline.
The trading market for our common stock will depend in part on the research and reports that securities or industry analysts publish about us or our business. If no securities or industry analysts commence coverage of our company, the trading price for our stock would be negatively impacted. If we obtain securities or industry analyst coverage and if one or more of the analysts who covers us downgrades our stock, publishes inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, our stock price would likely decline. If one or more of these analysts ceases coverage of us or fails to publish reports on us regularly, demand for our stock could decrease, which could cause our stock price and trading volume to decline.


48

Table of Contents

ITEM 1.    LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

None.



ITEM 2.    UNREGISTERED SALES OF EQUITY SECURITIES AND USE OF PROCEEDS

Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities

None.

Use of Proceeds

Not applicable.



ITEM 3.    DEFAULTS UPON SENIOR SECURITIES

None.



ITEM 4.    Mine Safety Disclosures

Not applicable.



ITEM 5.    OTHER INFORMATION

None.



ITEM 6.    EXHIBITS

The exhibits listed in the Index to Exhibits (following the signatures page of this Quarterly Report) are filed with, or incorporated by reference in, this Quarterly Report.



49

Table of Contents

SIGNATURES

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the Registrant has duly caused this Report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned thereunto duly authorized.

NEWLINK GENETICS CORPORATION
 
By:
/s/ Charles J. Link, Jr.
Charles J. Link, Jr.
Chief Executive Officer
(Principal Executive Officer)
Date: November 10, 2014
 
By:
/s/ John B. Henneman, III
John B. Henneman, III
Chief Financial Officer and Secretary
(Principal Financial Officer)
Date: November 10, 2014


50

Table of Contents

The following exhibits are filed with this form 10-Q or incorporated herein by reference to the document set forth next to the exhibit listed below. Where so indicated, exhibits that were previously filed are incorporated by reference.
 
 
 
Incorporated By Reference
 
Exhibit Number
 
Description
Form
Filing Date
Number
Filed Herewith
3.1
 
Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation filed on November 16, 2011
8-K
11/18/2011
3.1
 
3.2
 
Certificate of Amendment to Restated Certificate of Incorporation filed on May 10, 2013
8-K
5/14/2013
3.1
 
3.3
 
Amended and Restated Bylaws
8-K
11/18/2011
3.2
 
4.1
 
Form of the Registrant’s Common Stock Certificate
S-1/A
10/26/2011
4.1
 
4.2
 
Reference is made to Exhibits 3.1, 3.2 and 3.3 hereof
 
 
 
 
4.3
 
Amended and Restated Investor Rights Agreement by and between the Company and certain holders of the Company’s capital stock dated as of December 1, 2010
10-Q
5/10/2012
4.3
 
10.1
License and Collaboration Agreement dated October 16, 2014 by and among the Company, NewLink Global, Genentech, Inc. and F. Hoffmann-LaRoche Ltd.
 
 
 
X
10.2
 
Amendment dated September 30, 2014 to the Development and Manufacturing Terms and Conditions by and between the Company and WuXi AppTec. Inc. dated June 19, 2014
 
 
 
X
10.3
Amendment dated March 28, 2006 to the License Agreement by and between the Company and Georgia Regents Research Institute, Inc., formerly known as Medical College of Georgia Research Institute dated September 13, 2005
 
 
 
X
10.4
Amendment dated July 10, 2014 to the License Agreement by and between the Company and Georgia Regents Research Institute, Inc., formerly known as Medical College of Georgia Research Institute dated September 13, 2005
 
 
 
X
10.5
 
Amendment dated July 31, 2014 to the Sole License Agreement by and between BioProtection Systems Corporation and Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada as Represented by the Minister of Health dated May 4, 2010
 
 
 
X
31.1
 
Certification of principal executive officer required by Rule 13a-14(a) / 15d-14(a)
 
 
 
X
31.2
 
Certification of principal financial officer required by Rule 13a-14(a) / 15d-14(a)
 
 
 
X
32.1
#
Section 1350 Certification
 
 
 
X
101.INS
XBRL Instance Document
 
 
 
X
101.SCH
 ‡
XBRL Taxonomy Extension Schema Document
 
 
 
X
101.CAL
 ‡
XBRL Taxonomy Extension Calculation Linkbase Document
 
 
 
X
101.DEF
 ‡
XBRL Taxonomy Extension Definition Linkbase Document
 
 
 
X
101.LAB
 ‡
XBRL Taxonomy Extension Label Linkbase Document
 
 
 
X
101.PRE
 ‡
XBRL Taxonomy Extension Presentation Linkbase Document
 
 
 
X
____________________

Indicates confidential treatment has been requested with respect to specific portions of this exhibit. Omitted portions have been filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Rule 24b-2 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.
#
The certifications attached as Exhibit 32.1 that accompany this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q are not deemed filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission and are not to be incorporated by reference into any filing of NewLink Genetics Corporation under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, whether made before or after the date of this Form 10-Q, irrespective of any general incorporation language contained in such filing.
Filed herewith electronically.

51
Exhibit 10.1
[*]  Certain confidential information contained in this document, marked by brackets, has been omitted and filed separately with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Rule 24b-2 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.



Confidential          Execution Version

Confidential          Execution Version
        

    
License and Collaboration Agreement
by and between
NewLink Genetics Corporation
and
NewLink Global
and
Genentech, Inc.
and
F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd
    

October 16, 2014





Exhibit 10.1
Confidential          Execution Version

LICENSE AND COLLABORATION AGREEMENT
This LICENSE AND COLLABORATION AGREEMENT (this “ Agreement ”) is made as of October 16, 2014 (the “ Execution Date ”), by and between NewLink Global , an exempted company organized and existing under the laws of the Cayman Islands, having its principal place of business at Grand Cayman, Cayman Islands (“ NGC ”), NewLink Genetics Corporation , a corporation organized and existing under the laws of Delaware, having its principal place of business at 2503 South Loop Drive, Ames, Iowa 50010 (“ NLNK ”) (NGC and NLNK collectively, “ NewLink ”), and Genentech, Inc. , a corporation organized and existing under the laws of Delaware, having its principal place of business at 1 DNA Way, South San Francisco, California 94080 USA (“ GNE ”), and F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd, a corporation organized and existing under the laws of Switzerland, having its principal place of business at Grenzacherstrasse 124, CH 4070 Basel, Switzerland (“ Roche ”) (GNE and Roche, collectively, “ Genentech ”). NewLink and Genentech are sometimes referred to in this Agreement individually as a “ Party ” and collectively as the “ Parties .”

RECITALS
WHEREAS, NewLink controls certain patents and know-how relating to its proprietary program regarding inhibitors of the IDO Target and TDO Target (as defined below), including patents and know-how covering the lead compound NLG919 and other compounds that are inhibitors of one or both targets;
WHEREAS, Genentech is a pharmaceutical company with expertise in developing and commercializing pharmaceutical products; and
WHEREAS, Genentech wishes to obtain from NewLink the exclusive rights to develop and commercialize such compounds, and NewLink wishes to grant such rights to Genentech, all under the terms and conditions set forth herein.
NOW, THEREFORE, in consideration of the foregoing premises and the mutual covenants contained herein, the receipt and sufficiency of which are hereby acknowledged, Genentech and NewLink hereby agree as follows:

Article 1
DEFINITIONS
The terms in this Agreement with initial letters capitalized shall have the meanings set forth below, or the meaning as designated in the indicated places throughout this Agreement.
1.1      Accounting Standard ” means, with respect to Genentech, the then-current generally accepted accounting principles in the United States, or International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), whichever is currently used as the standard financial accounting guideline at the applicable time by, and as consistently applied by Genentech or its Sublicensee, as applicable.

-1-
[*]  Certain confidential information contained in this document, marked by brackets, has been omitted and filed separately with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Rule 24b-2 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.

Exhibit 10.1
Confidential          Execution Version

1.2      Active Ingredient ” means the clinically active molecule(s) that provide pharmacological activity in a pharmaceutical product (excluding formulation components such as coatings, stabilizers, excipients or solvents, adjuvants or controlled release technologies).
1.3      Advanced Reversion Product ” means any product that contains a Reversion Compound [*] to the [*].
1.4      Affiliate ” means, with respect to a Party, any Person that controls, is controlled by, or is under common control with that Party. For the purpose of this definition only, “control” (including, with correlative meaning, the terms “controlled by” and “under the common control”) means the actual power, either directly or indirectly through one or more intermediaries, to direct or cause the direction of the management and policies of such Person, whether by the ownership of more than fifty percent (50%) of the voting stocking of such Person, by contract or otherwise. Notwithstanding the foregoing, for purposes of this Agreement, Chugai Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd, (for purposes of this definition, “Chugai” ) and all business entities controlled by Chugai shall not be considered Genentech’s Affiliates, unless and until Genentech elects to include one or more of such business entities as an Affiliate, by providing written notice to NewLink of such election.
1.5      Alliance Manager ” is defined in Section 2.1.
1.6      Business Day ” means a day other than a Saturday, Sunday or a day that is a bank holiday in the U.S.
1.7      Change of Control ” means, with respect to a Party, (a) a merger or consolidation of such Party with a Third Party that results in the voting securities of such Party outstanding immediately prior thereto, or any securities into which such voting securities have been converted or exchanged, ceasing to represent at least fifty percent (50%) of the combined voting power of the surviving entity or the parent of the surviving entity immediately after such merger or consolidation, or (b) a transaction or series of related transactions in which a Third Party, together with its Affiliates, becomes the beneficial owner of fifty percent (50%) or more of the combined voting power of the outstanding securities of such Party, or (c) the sale or other transfer to a Third Party of all or substantially all of such Party’s business to which the subject matter of this Agreement relates.
1.8      Claims ” means all Third Party demands, claims, actions, suits, proceedings, demands or judgments.
1.9      Collaboration means the collaboration of the Parties with respect to the Research of the Licensed Compounds and the Development and Commercialization of the Licensed Products in the Field, as and to the extent set forth in this Agreement.
1.10      Collaboration Intellectual Property ” means any information, discoveries, improvements, modifications, processes, methods, designs, protocols, formulas, data, inventions, algorithms, forecasts, profiles, strategies, plans, results, know-how and trade secrets, patentable or otherwise, that is discovered, generated, conceived and/or reduced to practice by or on behalf either Party (including its Affiliates, employees, agents and contractors), whether solely or jointly, in the

-2-
[*]  Certain confidential information contained in this document, marked by brackets, has been omitted and filed separately with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Rule 24b-2 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.

Exhibit 10.1
Confidential          Execution Version

course of or as a result of the performance of the Next Gen Research Program, including all rights, title and interest in and to the intellectual property rights therein and thereto.
1.11      Collaboration Know-How ” means Know-How that is within the Collaboration Intellectual Property.
1.12      Collaboration Patents ” means Patent Rights that claim any Collaboration Intellectual Property.
1.13      Combination Product ” is defined in Section 1.78 (definition of “Net Sales”).
1.14      Commercialize ” or “ Commercialization ” means all activities directed to commercial manufacturing, marketing, promoting, advertising, exhibiting, distributing, detailing or selling a Licensed Product in the Field (including importing and exporting activities in connection therewith).
1.15      Commercially Reasonable Efforts ” means: (a) where applied to carrying out specific tasks and obligations of a Party under this Agreement, [*] as such Party [*]; and (b) where applied to activities relating to Research of a Next Generation Compound, or the Development and/or Commercialization of a Licensed Product, [*]. For clarity, [*] shall include [*] to a [*], such as [*], provided that [*].
1.16      “Committee ” means the JRC, any JDT or any subcommittee established under Sections 2.2 and 2.3, as applicable. The activities to be performed by each Committee shall solely relate to governance under this Agreement, and are not intended to be or involve the delivery of services.
1.17      Compound ” means a compound (a) with a [*], (b) that binds to and inhibits the activity of one or both of the IDO Target and TDO Target, with an IC50 of [*] in the applicable Enzymatic Assay, and (c) that is [*] the inhibition of one or both of the IDO Target or TDO Target, including NLG919, but excluding Indoximod.
1.18      “[ * ]” shall mean [*].
1.19      “[ * ]” is defined in [*].
1.20      Confidential Information ” of a Disclosing Party means all Know-How, unpublished patent applications and other non-public information and data of a financial, commercial, business, operational or technical nature of such Disclosing Party or its Affiliate that is disclosed by or on behalf of such Disclosing Party or any of its Affiliates or otherwise made available to the Receiving Party or any of its Affiliates, in each case in connection with this Agreement or the Confidentiality Agreement, whether made available orally, visually, in writing or in electronic form. In addition, and notwithstanding anything to the contrary in this Agreement, the terms and conditions of this Agreement, the Next Gen Research Plan, the Initial Development Plan, any information relating to the Next Gen Research Program, any materials or information

-3-
[*]  Certain confidential information contained in this document, marked by brackets, has been omitted and filed separately with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Rule 24b-2 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.

Exhibit 10.1
Confidential          Execution Version

provided pursuant to Section 5.9, and all Collaboration Intellectual Property shall be deemed the Confidential Information of both Parties.
1.21      Confidentiality Agreement ” is defined in Section 14.9.
1.22      Control ” or “ Controlled ” means the possession by a Party (whether by ownership, license or otherwise) of, (a) with respect to any tangible Know-How, the legal authority or right to physical possession of such tangible Know-How, with the right to provide such tangible Know-How to the other Party on the terms and conditions set forth herein, or (b) with respect to Patent Rights, intangible Know-How or other intellectual property rights, the legal authority or right to grant a license, sublicense, access or right to use (as applicable) under such Patent Rights, intangible Know-How or other intellectual property rights to the other Party on the terms and conditions set forth herein, in each case of (a) and (b) without breaching the terms of any agreement with a Third Party.
1.23      Co-Promote ” and “ Co-Promotion ” means promotional activities directed to healthcare professionals in the furtherance of the Commercialization of Licensed Products or Subsequent Products.
1.24      Co-Promotion IP Rights ” means any [*] for [*], to the extent [*].
1.25      Co-Promotion Plan ” means the commercialization plan which includes sales force allocation, [*], the Parties’ commercialization responsibilities, and sales effectiveness metrics.
1.26      Co-Promotion Territory ” means the United States.
1.27      “Covered by” or “Cover,” or the like, means, with respect to a given Licensed Product (or Subsequent Product, or Reversion Product, as applicable), that the [*] Licensed Product (or Subsequent Product, or Reversion Product, as applicable) (including the Licensed Compound (or Subsequent Compound, or Reversion Compound, as applicable) contained therein) is claimed by a Valid Claim.
1.28      Develop ” or “ Development ” means all development activities for any Licensed Product that are directed to obtaining Marketing Approval(s) of such Licensed Product, including: all non-clinical, preclinical and clinical activities, testing and studies of such Licensed Product; manufacturing development, process and formulation development; toxicology, pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, drug-drug interaction, safety, tolerability and pharmacological studies; distribution of such Licensed Product for use in clinical trials (including placebos and comparators); statistical analyses; and the preparation, filing and prosecution of any MAA for such Licensed Product; development activities directed to label expansion (including prescribing information) and/or obtaining Marketing Approval for one or more additional Indications following initial Marketing Approval; development activities conducted after receipt of Marketing Approval which were a condition for the receipt of such Marketing Approval; and pharmacoeconomic studies relating to the Indication for which the applicable Licensed Product is being developed; in each case above, including investigator- and/or institution-sponsored studies for which a Party is providing material

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[*]  Certain confidential information contained in this document, marked by brackets, has been omitted and filed separately with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Rule 24b-2 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.

Exhibit 10.1
Confidential          Execution Version

or assistance or otherwise has written obligations to such investigator and/or institution; and all regulatory activities related to any of the foregoing.
1.29      Development Costs ” means [*] incurred by or on account of a Party in performing Development in accordance with the Development Plan.
1.30      Development Plan is defined in Section 5.3(a).
1.31      Disclosing Party is defined in Section 9.1(a).
1.32      Dispute ” means any controversy, claim or legal proceeding arising out of or relating to this Agreement, or the breach, termination or invalidity thereof. Notwithstanding the foregoing, Disputes shall not include any disagreements solely about decisions for which one Party has final decision making authority under this Agreement.
1.33      Dollars ” means the U.S. dollar, and “$” shall be interpreted accordingly.
1.34      Effective Date ” means the date this Agreement becomes effective, as determined in accordance with Section 14.19.
1.35      EMA ” means the European Medicines Agency or any successor entity thereto.
1.36      Enzymatic Assay ” means, with respect to the IDO Target, the assay described in [*], which is a method adapted from [*] and, with respect to the TDO Target, the assay described in the assay described in [*], which is a method adapted from [*]. Enzymatic Assay shall also include [*] of the enzyme reactions or [*], as agreed upon by the JRC. Any IC50's of control compounds measured [*] should fall [*] using the references listed above.
1.37      EU ” or “ European Union ” means (a) the European Union and its member states as of the Execution Date, which are: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom, and (b) each of their successors to the extent such successors occupy the same territory.
1.38      Executive Officer ” means, in the case of Genentech, its [*] and in the case of NewLink, the Chief Executive Officer or President of NLNK.
1.39      FDA ” means the United States Food and Drug Administration or any successor entity thereto.
1.40      Field ” means any use.
1.41      Filing ” of an MAA means the acceptance by a Regulatory Authority of an MAA for filing and review, if applicable, or otherwise the submission of such MAA.

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[*]  Certain confidential information contained in this document, marked by brackets, has been omitted and filed separately with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Rule 24b-2 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.

Exhibit 10.1
Confidential          Execution Version

1.42      First Commercial Sale ” means, with respect to any Licensed Product in any country or jurisdiction, the first invoiced sale of such Licensed Product by Genentech or its Affiliate or Sublicensee to a Third Party for distribution, use or consumption in such country or jurisdiction after the Marketing Approvals have been obtained for such Licensed Product in such country or jurisdiction.
1.43      FTE ” means the equivalent of a full-time individual’s work for a twelve (12) month period (consisting of a total of [*] hours per year of dedicated effort). Any person who devotes more or less than [*] hours per year on the applicable activities shall be treated as an FTE on a pro-rata basis, based upon the actual number of hours worked by such person on such activities, divided by [*]; provided, however, that [*]. FTE activities shall not include [*] or [*].
1.44      FTE Rate ” means an initial rate of [*] Dollars ($[*]) per FTE per year for NewLink, which shall in each case apply through [*]. Thereafter, the FTE Rate shall be changed annually on a calendar year basis to reflect [*] in the [*] (based on [*] from the [*] to the [*]).
1.45      Genentech Indemnitee ” is defined in Section 12.1.
1.46      Genentech Know-How ” means all Know-How that is (a) Controlled by Genentech or its Affiliates as of the Execution Date or that comes into the Control of Genentech, its Affiliates or Sublicensees after the Execution Date and during the term of this Agreement, and (b) reasonably necessary or useful for the Research of any Compound or the Development or Commercialization of any Licensed Product or Subsequent Product. For clarity, Genentech Know-How shall include Genentech’s interest in any Collaboration Know-How.
1.47      Genentech Patents ” means any Patent Right that is (a) Controlled by Genentech or its Affiliates as of the Execution Date or that comes into the Control of Genentech, its Affiliates or Sublicensees after the Execution Date and during the term of this Agreement, and (b) reasonably necessary or useful for the Research of any Compound or the Development or Commercialization of any Licensed Product or Subsequent Product. For clarity, Genentech Patents shall include Genentech’s interest in any Collaboration Patents.
1.48      Genentech Reversion Technology ” means Genentech Technology that both (a) [*] with respect to [*], and (b) [*].
1.49      Genentech Technology ” means Genentech Know-How and Genentech Patents.
1.50      Generic Product ” means, with respect to a Licensed Product in a particular country, or region any pharmaceutical product that [*] is sold in such country or region by a Third Party that is not a licensee of Genentech or its Affiliates or Sublicensees and did not purchase such product in a chain of distribution that included any of Genentech or its Affiliates or Sublicensees.
1.51      GRRI ” means Georgia Regents Research Institute, Inc., which was formerly known as Georgia Health Sciences University Research Institute, Inc. and as Medical College of Georgia Research Institute, Inc.

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[*]  Certain confidential information contained in this document, marked by brackets, has been omitted and filed separately with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Rule 24b-2 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.

Exhibit 10.1
Confidential          Execution Version

1.52      GRRI License Agreement ” means that certain License Agreement between GRRI and NLNK dated September 13, 2005, as amended.
1.53      Governmental Authority ” means any federal, state, national, state, provincial or local government, or political subdivision thereof, or any multinational organization or any authority, agency or commission entitled to exercise any administrative, executive, judicial, legislative, police, regulatory or taxing authority or power, any court or tribunal (or any department, bureau or division thereof, or any governmental arbitrator or arbitral body).
1.54      HSR Act means the Hart-Scott-Rodino Antitrust Improvements Act of 1976, as amended, and the rules promulgated thereunder.
1.55      HSR Conditions ” means the following conditions, collectively: (a) the waiting period under the HSR Act shall have expired or earlier been terminated; (b) no injunction (whether temporary, preliminary or permanent) prohibiting consummation of the transaction contemplated by this Agreement or any material portion hereof shall be in effect; (c) no judicial or administrative proceeding opposing consummation of all or any part of this Agreement shall be pending; and (d) no requirements or conditions shall have been imposed by the United States Department of Justice or Federal Trade Commission (as applicable) in connection with the filings by the Parties under the HSR Act, other than requirements or conditions that are satisfactory to the Party on whom such requirements or conditions are imposed.
1.56      HSR Filing ” means filings with the United States Federal Trade Commission and the Antitrust Division of the United States Department of Justice of a Notification and Report Form for Certain Mergers and Acquisitions (as that term is defined in the HSR Act) with respect to the subject matter of this Agreement, together with all required documentary attachments thereto.
1.57      IDO Target ” means [*].
1.58      IND ” means any investigational new drug application, clinical trial application, clinical trial exemption or similar or equivalent application or submission for approval to conduct human clinical investigations filed with or submitted to a Regulatory Authority in conformance with the requirements of such Regulatory Authority.
1.59      Indemnified Party ” is defined in Section 12.3.
1.60      Indemnifying Party ” is defined in Section 12.3.
1.61      Indication ” means any separately defined, well-categorized class of human disease, syndrome or medical condition [*]. Each different [*] shall be a separate Indication; however each different [*] will not be considered a separate Indication.
1.62      Indoximod ” means NewLink’s proprietary small molecule IDO pathway inhibitor known as of the Execution Date as indoximod, or 1-methyl-D-tryptophan, with the chemical structure as set forth in Exhibit A , or any, enantiomer, polymorph, salt form, base, acid, racemate, isomer, diastereomer, tautomer, solvate, hydrate, ester or Known Prodrug thereof.

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[*]  Certain confidential information contained in this document, marked by brackets, has been omitted and filed separately with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Rule 24b-2 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.

Exhibit 10.1
Confidential          Execution Version

1.63      Initial Development Plan ” is defined in Section 5.2.
1.64      Initiation ” means, with respect to a clinical trial of a Licensed Product, the first dosing of the first human subject for such clinical trial.
1.65      Joint Development Budget ” is defined in Section 5.3(a).
1.66      Joint Development Team ” or “ JDT ” is defined in Section 2.3.
1.67      Joint Research Committee ” or “ JRC ” is defined in Section 2.2.
1.68      Know-How ” means any information and materials, including discoveries, improvements, modifications, processes, methods, assays, designs, protocols, formulas, data, inventions, algorithms, forecasts, profiles, strategies, plans, results, know-how and trade secrets (in each case, patentable, copyrightable or otherwise), but excluding any Patent Rights.
1.69      Known Prodrug ” means a drug product that [*], and is [*] which is [*], such as [*] of the drug. For clarity, [*].
1.70      Law ” means any federal, state, local, foreign or multinational law, statute, standard, ordinance, code, rule, regulation, resolution or promulgation, or any order by any Governmental Authority, or any license, franchise, permit or similar right granted under any of the foregoing, or any similar provision having the force or effect of law.
1.71      Licensed Compound ” means NLG919 or any Next Generation Compound.
1.72      Licensed Product ” means any pharmaceutical product containing a Licensed Compound, alone or in combination with other Active Ingredients, in any formulation or dosage form and for any mode of administration.
1.73      LIMR ” means the Lankenau Institute for Medical Research.
1.74      LIMR License Agreements ” means (a) that certain Exclusive License Agreement between LIMR and NLNK dated July 7, 2005, as amended, (b) that certain Exclusive License Agreement between LIMR and NLNK dated April 23, 2009.
1.75      MAA ” or “ Marketing Authorization Application ” means an application to the appropriate Regulatory Authority for approval to commercially sell a Licensed Product (but excluding pricing approval) in the Field in a particular jurisdiction (including, without limitation, a New Drug Application in the U.S.) and all amendments and supplements thereto.
1.76      Major EU Country ” means [*] and [*].
1.77      Marketing Approval ” means all approvals necessary for the commercial sale of a Licensed Product in the Field in a given country or regulatory jurisdiction, including, where applicable, pricing or reimbursement approval in such country.

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[*]  Certain confidential information contained in this document, marked by brackets, has been omitted and filed separately with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Rule 24b-2 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.

Exhibit 10.1
Confidential          Execution Version

1.78      “Net Sales ” shall mean, for a Licensed Product in a particular period, the amount calculated by subtracting from the Sales of such Licensed Product for such period: (i) [*]; (ii) [*]; (iii) [*]; and (iv) [*]. Notwithstanding the foregoing, solely for the purpose of calculating Net Sales under this Agreement, any [*] on Licensed Product sold to a Third Party shall be no greater, on a [*] based on the gross selling price prior to discount, than the [*] applied on the [*] sold for use in [*] Licensed Product to a Third Party for the applicable accounting period.  “ Genentech Combined Product ” means any [*] (other than a Licensed Product) that has received Marketing Approval for use [*] with Licensed Product.
If a Licensed Product either (i) [*]; or (ii) is [*] (in either case ((i) or (ii)), a “ Combination Product ”), the Net Sales of such Licensed Product for the purpose of calculating royalties and sales-based milestones owed under this Agreement for sales of such Licensed Product, shall be determined as follows: first, [*] where A is the invoice price of such Licensed Product, if sold separately, and B is the total invoice price of the other Active Ingredient(s) in such Combination Product if sold separately. [*], then the adjustment to Net Sales shall be determined by the Parties in good faith to reasonably reflect the fair market value of the contribution of such Licensed Product in such Combination Product to the total fair market value of such Combination Product.
With respect to any sale of any Licensed Product in a given country for any substantive consideration other than monetary consideration on arm’s length terms (which has the effect of reducing the invoiced amount below what it would have been in the absence of such non-monetary consideration), for purposes of calculating the Net Sales, such Licensed Product shall be deemed to be sold exclusively for cash at the average Net Sales price charged to Third Parties for cash sales of such Licensed Product in such country during the applicable reporting period (or if there were only de minimis cash sales in such country, at the fair market value as determined in good faith based on pricing in comparable markets). Notwithstanding the foregoing, Net Sales shall not include amounts (whether actually existing or deemed to exist for purposes of calculation) for Licensed Products distributed for use in clinical trials.
Net Sales shall be calculated on an accrual basis, in a manner consistent with Genentech’s accounting policies for external reporting purposes, as consistently applied, in accordance with the then currently used Accounting Standard.
1.79      NewLink Combination Therapy ” means a combination therapeutic regimen that includes the administration of a Licensed Product and the administration of a NewLink HyperAcute Vaccine.
1.80      “NewLink HyperAcute Vaccine” means [*].
1.81      NewLink Indemnitee ” is defined in Section 12.2.
1.82      NewLink Know-How ” means all Know-How that is (a) Controlled by NewLink or its Affiliates as of the Execution Date or that comes into the Control of NewLink or its Affiliates after the Execution Date and during the Restriction Period, and (b) reasonably necessary or useful for the Research of any Compound, or the Development or Commercialization of any Licensed Product, but excluding all Know-How under the GRRI License Agreement and LIMR License

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[*]  Certain confidential information contained in this document, marked by brackets, has been omitted and filed separately with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Rule 24b-2 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.

Exhibit 10.1
Confidential          Execution Version

Agreements. For clarity, NewLink Know-How shall include NewLink’s interest in any Collaboration Know-How. Notwithstanding the foregoing, in the event of a Change of Control of NewLink, the NewLink Know-How shall not include any Know-How that is (1) owned or controlled by a Third Party described in the definition of “Change of Control” [*] and existing prior to or as of the closing of such Change of Control, or (2) developed after such Change of Control without the use of the NewLink Know-How in existence prior to the closing of such Change of Control, or (3) developed after such Change of Control and not directly related to the Licensed Product or the Compound used therein.
1.83      NewLink Patents ” means any Patent Right that is (a) Controlled by NewLink or its Affiliates as of the Execution Date or that comes into the Control of NewLink or its Affiliates after the Execution Date and during the Restriction Period, and (b) reasonably necessary or useful for the Research of any Compound, or the Development or Commercialization of any Licensed Product, but excluding all Patent Rights under the GRRI License Agreement and LIMR License Agreements. For clarity, NewLink Patents shall include NewLink’s interest in any Collaboration Patents. Notwithstanding the foregoing, (i) in the event of a Change of Control of NewLink, the NewLink Patents shall not include any Patent Right owned or controlled by a Third Party described in the definition of “Change of Control” [*] and (1) existing prior to or as of the closing of such Change of Control, (2) existing after the closing of such Change of Control and claiming inventions made prior to the closing of such Change of Control or (3) claiming only inventions made after such Change of Control without the use of the NewLink Know-How or NewLink Patents in existence prior to the closing of such Change of Control.
1.84      NewLink Technology ” means NewLink Patents and NewLink Know-How.
1.85      Next Generation Compound ” means any Compound other than NLG919: (a) that is invented, or [*], by or on behalf of NewLink or its Affiliate, whether solely or jointly, as of the Effective Date or thereafter during the Restriction Period (whether or not pursuant to the Research Plan), (b) that is invented or otherwise the [*], by or on behalf of Genentech or its Affiliate or Sublicensee, [*], whether solely or jointly, during the Next Gen Research Term (whether or not pursuant to the Research Plan), (c) the composition of matter, manufacture or use of which is Covered by a Valid Claim of a NewLink Patent or Collaboration Patent; or (d) that is an enantiomer, polymorph, salt form, base, acid, racemate, isomer, diastereomer, tautomer, solvate, hydrate, ester or Known Prodrug of a Compound described in (a), (b) or (c) above.
1.86      Next Generation Product ” means any Licensed Product that is not a NLG919 Product.
1.87      Next Gen Research Budget ” is defined in Section 4.3.
1.88      Next Gen Research Plan ” is defined in Section 4.3.
1.89      Next Gen Research Plan Costs ” is defined in Section 4.6.
1.90      “Next Gen Research Program” is defined in Section 4.1.

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[*]  Certain confidential information contained in this document, marked by brackets, has been omitted and filed separately with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Rule 24b-2 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.

Exhibit 10.1
Confidential          Execution Version

1.91      Next Gen Research Term ” is defined in Section 4.2.
1.92      NLG919 ” means NewLink’s proprietary small molecule IDO inhibitor known as of the Execution Date as NLG919, as further described in [*] or any enantiomer, polymorph, salt form, base, acid, racemate, isomer, diastereomer, tautomer, solvate, hydrate, ester or Known Prodrug thereof.
1.93      NLG919 Product ” means any Licensed Product that contains NLG919.
1.94      “[ *] ” means a NLG919 Product that is administered to human subjects in a clinical trial who are also receiving [*] pursuant to the protocol for such trial.
1.95      Patent Rights ” means all patents and patent applications (which shall be deemed to include certificates of invention and applications for certificates of invention), including all divisionals, continuations, substitutions, continuations-in-part, re-examinations, reissues, additions, renewals, revalidations, extensions, registrations, and supplemental protection certificates and the like of any such patents and patent applications, and any and all foreign equivalents of the foregoing.
1.96      “[ *] ” means a NLG919 Product that is administered to human subjects in a clinical trial who are also receiving [*] pursuant to the protocol for such trial.
1.97      Person means any individual, partnership, limited liability company, firm, corporation, association, trust, unincorporated organization or other entity.
1.98      Pharmacovigilance Agreement ” means an agreement entered into by the Parties to set forth the protocols and procedures for reporting adverse events and complying with reporting requirements set forth by Regulatory Authorities.
1.99      Phase 1 Clinical Trial ” means a controlled human clinical trial of a Licensed Product that would satisfy the requirements of 21 CFR 312.21(a) or corresponding foreign regulations, regardless of whether such trial is referred to as a “phase 1 clinical trial”.
1.100      Phase 2 Clinical Trial ” means a controlled human clinical trial of a Licensed Product that would satisfy the requirements of 21 CFR 312.21(b) or corresponding foreign regulations, regardless of whether such trial is referred to as a “phase 2 clinical trial”.
1.101      Phase 3 Clinical Trial